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final sociology

a change in behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people normative behavior/conformity
to each subject, the light appeared to move due to the autokinetic effect (no point of reference)tend to conform to group concensus Sherif's autokinetic effect
Variations of the basic paradigm tested how many confederates were necessary to induce conformity, examining the influence of just one confederate and as many as fifteen confederates asch experiment
we humans are seen as torn between the forces of good and evil Demonic possession as a theory of deviance
Measured physical characteristics of criminals vs. non-criminals (used scientific method) Caesar Lombroso theory of atavism
bad only because they were prohibited by laws or norms Mala prohibita
evil in and of themselves mala in se
norms vary across societies Relativity of deviance
Egoism: occurs when people are not well integrated into society (lack ties to their social groups) and Anomie: a state wherein society fails to exercise adequate regulation of the goals and desires of individual members Durkheim and sucidiogenic factors
Anomie occurs when the norms of a society do not match its social structure (ex American Dream) Robert Merton and anomie
proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior Edwin Sutherland (differential association)
the theory proposes that delinquents fail to form or maintain a bond to society consisting of commitment, attachment, involvement and belief Travis Hirschi, control theory
this is an investment in conventional behavior which the youth risks should he or she become delinquent commitment
corresponds to the affective ties which the youth forms to significant others (ex. family) attachment
refers to participation in conventional activities which lead toward socially valued success and status objectivities (ex. future goals and objectives prevent delinquency) involvement
acceptance of the moral validity of the central social-value system (less rule-bound are more likely to break rules) belief
o Deviance as a learned behavior: deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an "offender". Howard Becker
Howard Becker, The theory is concerned with how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them, and is associated with the concept of a self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping Societal reaction and labeling theory
wrote the Saints and the Roughnecks and showed how societal class and expectations and how that affects the way people are treated and perceived William Chambliss
the kind of deviant acts that most everyone does from time to time: frequently, may go unnoticed and unsanctioned primary deviance
deviant behavior that occurs after and because of the fact that the individual already has been labeled as deviant secondary deviance
: In labeling theory, role engulfment refers to how a person's identity becomes based on a role the person assumes, superseding other roles role engulfment
a physical or social attribute that discredits an individual’s claim to complete respectability Erving Goffman, stigma
: the social identity of one who hides a stigma and is thereby vulnerable to being found out and discredited Discreditable identity
a social identity that has been damaged owing to stigma Discredited identity
Deviance clarifies and affirms norms, Deviance promotes social unity, and Deviance promotes social change Functions of deviance
society is made up of social layers (strata) that are arranged in a hierarchy stratification
caste, estate, and class systmes legitimating rationales
rank is determined at birth caste system
as in a caste system, a person’s place in the hierarchy of an estate system is determined at birth. Contacts between members of different estates are permitted, though generally this contact is fairly impersonal (ex between boss and employee) estate systems
social class system of stratification, it is commonly thought that the best people work their own way into the highest ranks class systems
a social class is a category of people who occupy similar positions in relation to the means of production (Bourgeoisie, Proletariat) Marx's conception of class
three dimensions of stratification: wealth, power (power = control), and prestige (how much they are honored by other people) socioeconomic status Weber's conception of class
The observation that the intensity of social inequality varies with the economic structure of society Kuznets curve
– the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance power
power that is seen as justified (police officer stopping bank robber) authority (legitimate power)
The degree to which people have social honor (people that have different jobs have different amounts of honor) status and prestige
Class; looks at people’s income, education, occupational prestige and wealth, provides overall assessment of people’s place in the social stratification system socioeconomic status (ses)
Class; looks at people’s income, education, occupational prestige and wealth, provides overall assessment of people’s place in the social stratification system chattel slavery
refers to movement from one occupation to another in the same stratum horizontal mobility
refers to movement up or down in a stratification system, lower to middle class for example vertical mobility
– refers to changes in positions in the stratification system by different generations of family members inter-generational mobility
– (career mobility) refers to the mobility that occurs within a person’s lifetime intra-generational mobility
Norm that requires and individual to marry someone outside of his or her own kinship, religious, or social group exogamy
norm that requires an individual to marry someone within his or her own kinship, religious, or social group endogamy
social inequality is an unconsciously evolved device by which societies ensure that the most important positions are conscientiously filled by the most qualified persons Davis and Moore's theory
the notion that people who have wealth, fame, or other scarce social goods find it easier to accumulate more of these compared to those with no wealth, fame, or other scare social goods Matthey Effect
2. Values, beliefs, and behavioral norms of lower classes are not very compatible with success in society, (o Culture of poverty: tends to perpetuate itself from generation to generation because of its effects on children) cultural explanation of inequality
1. People in different social classes have different patterns of values, beliefs, and behavioral norms which they pass on to their children through the socialization process structural explanation of inequality
unjustly stating or believing that the cause of a problem resides in the individuals or groups who experience the problem, when the real source or cause of the problem is the social environment blaming the victim
some people’s dollars cost more and buy less a dollar is not always a dollar
o Negative and persistent judgment based on scant or incorrect information about people in a particular group; an unjustified prejudgment prejudice
oversimplified generalized images of members of a particular group stereotypes
unfavorable treatment of people based their membership in some ill-favored group discrimination
occurs an individual discriminates against another individual (or groups of individuals) individual discrimination
discriminatory treatment of certain people that is built into a social system; individuals who carry out institutional discrimination may not intend to discriminate institutional discrimination
discriminatory treatment of certain people that is built into a social system; individuals who carry out institutional discrimination may not intend to discriminate (Exclusion from full participation in the life of society) Louis Wirth
suffix generally applied to any type of discrimination that is consistent with patterns of institutional discrimination Isms
Feagin’s term for the cumulative results of many racial slights and insults pyramiding of effect of discrimination
o Race is socially constructed attribute that is tied to beliefs about differences in the physical makeup of different individuals race as a social structure
Has to do with shared cultural heritage ethnicity
sex differences (biological) gender differences (social expectations) gender
Things that people start out with that are not owing to their individual skills sex and race as social capital
male gender got higher ranking for the exact same article J. McKay studies
o Gender differences are really sex differences that are filtered through social beliefs about the nature of sex differences (vary from society to society) Margaret Mead’s study of three New Guinea societies
White is presented as simply normal or neutral transparency and whiteness
Created by: jenks14
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