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Psychology 101 Ch

Final

QuestionAnswer
What is a psychological disorder? The medical model takes a “disease” view, while psychology sees psychological disorder as an interaction of biological, cognitive, social, and behavioral factors
Three classic signs that suggest severe psychological disorders Hallucinations Delusions Severe affective disturbances
Psychological Disorders Part of a series ranging from absence of disorder to severe disorder Disorders are a exaggeration of normal responses
Ancient World Supernatural powers- Possession by demons and spirits
400 B. C. Physical causes- Hippocrates-imbalance of humors
Middle Ages Medieval church Demons and witchcraft
18th Century Mental disorders are diseases of the mind Similar to other physical diseases Objective causes requiring specific treatments
Behavioral perspective Abnormal behaviors can be acquired through behavioral learning – operant and classical conditioning
Cognitive perspective Abnormal behaviors are influenced by mental processes – how people perceive themselves and their relations with others
Social-cognitive-behavioral approach combines psychology’s 3 major perspectives Behavior, cognition, and social/environmental factors all influence each other Recognize the influence of biology
Distress Does the individual show unusual or prolonged levels of unease or anxiety?
Maladaptiveness Does the person act in ways that make others fearful or interfere with his or her well-being?
Irrationality Does the person act or talk in ways that are irrational or incomprehensible to others?
Unpredictability Does the individual behave erratically and inconsistently at different times or from one situation to another; experiencing a loss of control?
Unconventionality and undesirable behavior Does the person behave in ways that are statistically rare and violate social norms?
How are Psychological Disorders Classified? The DSM-IV, most widely used system, classifies disorders by their mental and behavioral symptoms
DSM-IV (1994): Fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Includes 300 disorders Neurotic disorder or neurosis Psychotic disorder or psychosis
Major depression Form of depression that does not alternate with mania Accounts for majority of mental hospital admissions Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – Believed to be caused by deprivation of sunlight
Bipolar disorder Alternating periods of depression and extreme elation Mania – Pathologically excessive elation or manic excitement Depression – Pathological sadness or despair
Phobia or phobic disorder Disorder involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation Cause: Preparedness hypothesis – Notion that we have an innate tendency to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors
Obsessive-compulsive disorder Characterized by patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors
Mood Disorders bipolar, depression
Anxiety Disorders Characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any known external cause
Panic Disorder Marked by panic attacks that have no connection to events in a person’s present experience
Agoraphobia Fear of public places/open spaces
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Believed to be caused by deprivation of sunlight
Preparedness hypothesis Notion that we have an innate tendency to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors
Somatoform Disorders Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints
Psychosomatic mental conditions lead to actual physical disease
Conversion disorder paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation, but with no discernable physical cause
Hypochondriasis Somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease
Dissociative disorders Group of pathologies involving “fragmentation” of the personality
Dissociative amnesia A psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information
Dissociative fugue Dissociative amnesia with the addition of “flight” from one’s home, family, and job dont remember who you are
Depersonalization disorder Abnormality involving the sensation of mind and body having separated
Dissociative identity disorder Condition in which the individual displays multiple identities
Schizophrenia severe psychopathology personality disintegrates Cognitive processes distorted More common in men than women First appearance typically before age 25 for men; between 25 and 45 for women
Major Types of Schizophrenia Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Residual Positive Negative
Disorganized Features incoherent speech, hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior
Catatonic Involves remaining motionless or extreme excitement
Paranoid Prominent feature: combination of delusions and hallucinations
Undifferentiated Persons displaying a combination of symptoms that do not clearly fit in one of the other categories
Residual Type Individuals who have had a past episode of schizophrenia but are free of symptoms
Positive Schizophrenia Any form in which the person displays active symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations)
Negative Schizophrenia Any form distinguished by deficits, such as withdrawal and poverty of thought processes reduction of wants of nomral people (love, relationships etc)
Possible Causes of Schizophrenia Evidence for causes found in a variety of factors including genetics, abnormal brain structure, and biochemistry
Diathesis-stress hypothesis Genetic factors place the individual at risk, but environmental stress factors transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder
Developmental Disorders Can appear at any age, but often first seen in childhood
Autism Marked by impoverished ability to “read” other peoples, use language, and interact socially
Dyslexia A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period
Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention Mild depression Marital problems Physical complaints Academic problems Parent-child problems Job problems Bereavement (reaction to loss of loved one) Malingering (fake one's illness)
Shyness Shyness, a distressing pattern of avoiding or withdrawing from social contact is treatable, but it is not a DSM-IV disorder
Depersonalization- Results from labeling Robbing people of their individuality and identity by treating them impersonally Reinforces disturbed behavior diagnostic label
What are the Consequences of Labeling People? Ideally, accurate diagnoses lead to proper treatments, but diagnoses may also become labels that depersonalize individuals and ignore the social and cultural contexts in which their problems arise
Insanity A legal term, not a psychological or psychiatric one, referring to a person who is unable, because of a mental disorder or defect, to confirm his or her behavior to the law
Obsession (OCD) thoughts, images, impulses that reoccur
Compulsions (OCD) repetitive, purposeful acts Genetic link-tendency to run in families Learning component
Created by: andreag718