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Psych 117 - klein

psych 117 klein

QuestionAnswer
different kinds of memory procedural, semantic, episodic
oldest memories in order procedural, semantic, episodic
duration of STM 13-18 secs
Duration of LTM can last up to a lifetime
Fibonacci sequence create an algorithm to figure out what comes next in the sequence.
study using Fibonacci? and what happened. HM showed he cared over some of the info from previous trials. next day took him less trials to solve the puzzles. korsakoff reacted the same way.
what is korsakoff memory loss due to drinking and permanently have anterograde amnesia. confabulate to make up for obvious losses.
Semantic memory Its just knowledge. Facts. (normally not lost) you don’t remember where you were when you learned it, you just know it.
Episodic Memory memory that has 3 keys components, spatial, temporal, and self-referential component (time, space, and a sense of self). It’s a memory of you or something that specifically happened to you, autobiographical. Enables us to recollect.
type of memory HM and others lose and type they rarely lose they lose episodic but not semantic, they can learn another language they just wont actually remember learning it.
Agnosia absence of knowledge, people can lose semantic, more rare but does happen.
WJ girl had some mild antereo amnesia, gave personality test, matched with remembered self and families. traits must be semantic, but even ppl that lose episodic can do this.
KC complete antereo and retro amnesia after moto accident. Did test about traits, they were still about .78 and when asking his family they correlated. How we see ourselves is true of episodic and semantic. We keep self referential knowledge, tulving.
DB DB had heartattack and lost 79 years. if you cant imagine your own past you cant inmagine yourself in the future. He had semantic knowledge of the past and of science only if he wasn't talking about himself.
memory is not a picture of what happened but.... its reconstructive.
tulving is known for distinguishing btwn the different types of LTM (episodic, procedural and semantic) came up with it to show how HM and Korskaoff can remember w.o remembering. STM and LTM are not disconnected.
Ebbinghaus, what is he known for? "father of memory research" introduced the experimental control
kinds of recall Free recall Serial recall – remember in order. Cued recall
easiest type of recall cued recall, external cue that reminds you of something, easiest kind of recall. association that helps you retrieve.
Problem with memory cant find something if you don’t know what your looking for, and we are looking for a thing that is not tangible. What is the concept?
HM Cut out temporal, couldn't remember 3 yrs before surgery, IQ and knowledge unimparied, had complete antereograde.
retrograde amnesia lose information form before accident
anterograde amnesia lose information after incident, can't form new memories.
how HMs case shows us that his STM and LTM aren't completely disconnected if you show him word fragment task, he will get better at it.
Clinical dissociation evidence for multiple memory, (HM) shows impariment in some memory tasks but not others.
Digitspan test test of anterograde amnesia, give them numbers to remember.
Benefits of memory evolved to help us plan for the future "humans discovered the future before they knew there was a past"
Category learning / Category Retrieval. Paired associate learning. Pair words from same category. Wait an hour or distract them for long enough, ask them what was paired with a certain word. Job association task: skydiver. Things are going in somehow when asked indirectly he gets it right.
Automatic memory interfered by thinking it out. Going with instinct we look at muliptle choice and when we think more about it we mess up and cant figure it out and ends up guessing the wrong thing. Controlled vs automatic.
why we lose episodic memory Its the newest system. Temporality is only experienced because of the Episodic system, lacking in childeren until 5 or 6 years old.
We normally ask what its capabilities are but, we need to ask why its doing that thing or why we should use it. We know what episodic memories do, we want to know why it does these things why this would be important enough to be passed down Kicks in around age 4 or 5.
tulving(double check on name) says we've evolved episodic bc... #### *He argues it’s a social creation, we can remember it for things like where the car is, but it wasn’t evolved for that reason.
Mirror Reading, what kind of memory is being tested? Procedural words spelled backwards on a mirror, theyre learning the procedure of reading backward. used complex words like cloudy. korsakoff did almost as well as the “normals.” They got better over time when on day 2. when presented with same words.
Susan Bauer (pre-exp.)#### Paragraph + picture, then rate. Good paragraphs then reviewed whether or not they like her. Reading the 2 paragraphs together you use episodic you remember episodically that she was married and now has a boyfriend.
how to create amnesia time delay.
results from Susan Bauer#### when asked a month or later ppl still liked her they just didn't know why. episodically they forgot the details, but they just knew that semantically they liked her more.
chess masters study and what does this help us study? when the pieces make sense the experts can remeber them better bc they were able to use semantic knowledge of where the pieces should go. otherwise did just as bad as novices. helps study the memories separately.
we treat alzheimer's patients like they have no personality so .... they act accordingly
we view memory as unitary, should we? we should not, way to study this is looking at clinical dissociation.
how a digit span task works subject hears a string a of number once it goes above 7 or 9 they will nedd to hear it several times for it to transfer to LTM. where there isnt a limit of 9 items.
what task showed that HM couldnt transfer from STM to LTM? digit span test, could repeat the number 100 times over it wont go to his LTM
patient that showed that memory is not unitary, and how? HM bc only part of his memory was affected after the surgery.
what kind of memory did HM have intact? (STM or LTM) (epis, sem, proce) STM, semantic and procedural.
tower of hanoi and korsakoff took about as many trials as normal in proceeding days showing there is learning occurring.
word fragment task and korsakoff ask them what word begins with MO, they will not get it right if asked what did you see earlier, but they willl when asked what word comes to mind?
how to ask HM or Korsakoff if they remember something from 5 minutes ago? ask what comes to mind.
Computer Language and HM he can learn this even though he has no recollection of learning it.
the three main components of Episodic memory spatial, temporal, and self-referential
who is evidence that memory is broken up into Episodic and Semantic other than HM WJ, her semantic memories for who she was was still intact, her episodes of her life were gone, but came back afterward.
functional dissociation one memory system as a result of some trauma becomes inoperable while the other system continues to function normally. is not absolute just means one "can" operate independently.
example of Agnosia Show someone the word CAT then ask them the next day what word they saw, they will episodically remember it was CAT, but ask them what it means and they wont know.
What is Procedural memory? knowing "how" to do something, hard to express.
what the mirror reading study showed about memory btwn korsakoff and normals and why the normals did so much better. showed procedurally they were able to learn how to read the words backwards, then episodically they remembered the repeated words.
blind sight a patient is unable to see yet is able to respond to visual stimuli. not disrupt ability to register stimuli, but maybe impaired the ability to TRANSFER info to consciousness.
what is the similarity between episodic amnesia and blind sight? what is maintained and lost in both cases. both lose the ability to become consciously aware of an event. what is maintained is the ability to respond correctly having "experienced" the event.
who "terrorized" memory research? Ebbinghaus
introspection under controlled conditions highly trained people would report their consciousness they believed all mental events were available to self-observation therefore all mental conditions are conscious.
in introspection all mental events are seen as... self-observable and conscious.
problems with introspection research -Lack of Replicability ( different labs using same techniques and same stimuli would have different reports) - lack of conscious acess not all metal events are available to the conscious)
ebbinghaus' experiments of memory consisted of what 3 basic components? - experimental control - method of savings - the CVC nonsense syllable.
ebbinghaus: experimental control the DV and IV and other settings are controlled for.
ebbinghaus: method of savings a performance assessment technique. showing memory isn't just conscious and he would get a % from the number of trials it took to learn a skill one day from the next.
ebbinghaus: CVC done to study new memories that are not affected by previously learned material. making a meaningless atom of memory to study
Ebbinghaus Forgetting curve
how did Ebbinghaus terrorize memory? intellectual climate created and assumptions about the type of material to be used to study memory.
behaviorism and attempt to make psych a hard science.
atomism reductionist approach, there are pieces of behavior and once we understand them we can put them together to study more complex things.
john Watson behaviorist, atomism, need to stop studying higher mental processes need to go to smaller then go larger. believed in higher process but thought we needed to understand the building blocks first.
Physical Monism there is nothing out there but the physical, but this only restricted behaviorists just to the observable.
Functionalism everything can be justified as stimulus and response. To understand a behavior you just need to know what the stimulus is thats acting and how that organism is responding.
Automatic memory is messed up when we.... try to think about it.
problem with CVC people will use different memory processes in order to remember and some CVCs will be able to remember for a multitude of reasons. would've known this if asked subjects but they were monists. you cant attribute meaning to this kind of stimulus.
ecological validity what expressed in the lab can be seen in the real world.
bartlett's ecological Approach to Memory accepted the prose that ebbinghaus didn't used repeated reproduction to see how the story was changed. making things fit your schema is what changes the story.
what kind of validity did CVC lack? Ecological Validity
why did Bartlett use repeated reproduction and the War of the ghosts? 1. it lacked internal order and he wanted to see how they would react. 2. how them trying to make sense if the story would distort it.
what main things were changed in the war of the ghosts? 1. omissions - the supernatural didn't make sense so it was left out. 2. transformation - the unfamiliar words were changed to familiar - canoe= boat. 3. rationalization - black comes out of mouth=foamed at mouth.
who coined "Effort after meaning," and what does it mean? Bartlett - people try to relate new info to existing semantic knowledge.
what is Schemata? preexisting, organized semantic knowledge ( bartlett)
Atkinson Shiffrin Model Computer metaphor
key feature of the computer model? that info flows through the memory system. Using a flow chart.
computer model appears to show memory is stored in a serial manner, should it? no. Some things occur in combination in a parallel process.
Plato compared the mind to an... aviary
Aristotle compared the mind to an... wax tablet
Spatial metaphor is used to describe the .... mind
the input stage in memory encoding
encoding affects physical stimluls by doing what to it? adding, deleting, and altering it.
creation of representation of info in LTM Storage
3 Types of Retrieval Recall, cued recall, recognition
kind of cue in recognition identity recall
kind of recall in cued recall partial recall.
forced choice recognition task sunject must choose from 2 or more items about whether or not they have seen the word before.
How Shepard tested subjects on recognition used force choice recognition task, showed subjects 500 words and they were able to recognize them after one pass.
The 2-Stage Model first the person must think of possibilities, then 2. they must decide which were actually seen.
is recognition ALWAYS better than recall? NO.
Factors that influence Recognition similarity of old and new words. 2. word frequency. 3. less alternatives
recognition is better when there is high or low word frequency for the old word? low
recall is better when there is high or low word frequency for the old word? high
recall can be just as good as recognition as long as the ___ stage which is the ______ stage is trivial first, generation
all retrieval, even free recall, is a form of _____ recall cued
Tulving's Encoding Specificity Principle memory is is a function of the overlap between information encoded at study time and information provided at retrieval.
sensory memory information recieved by receptor cells, slightly preserved by this.
We are not aware of sensory memory so it is not open to ________ introspection.
Iconic sensory memory allows you to perceive the "______" world as _______ like a movie. real, contious
How did george sperling test iconic memory, and what kind of reporting was used. made a matrix of letters and numbers and found that it contains about 4-5 items.
why were subjects in sperlings experiment about iconic memory only able to hold 4-5 items bc it fades to quickly and there is a difference between holding an image and holding an image to for further processing. it comes in raw and by the time STM categorizes it, its mostly gone.
How did Sperling use the partial report? matrix with high, low, med tone. they were able to remember 100% of the time.
using a partial report for a 12 letter matrix show us that 12 items is... too much for our iconic memory to handle.
duration of iconic memory 1/3 sec.
what did the brown study say about intereference and STM? that its actually decay that is leading to forgetting in STM not interference like previously thought.
wickens study about relesase from PI can be quesitoned when you bring up that it could just be a case of.... a change in the encoding strategy.
flower experiment showed that the release from PI is really due to.... retrieval not encoding factors.
Created by: bbbennington