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Develop. Psy. Final

This is a review for our Developmental Psychology course.

What are emotions? The physiological changes, subjective (personal) experiences, and expressive behaviors that are involved in such feelings as love, joy, grief, and anger.
What theory did Carol Izard create? Differential Emotions Theory
Izard identified what emotions in infants? Interest(Ticking clock induced), Distress, Disgust, Joy(Emerges between the fourth and sixth week; look for social smile), Sadness(Emerges between three and four months), Anger, Surprise, Fear(stranger anxiety 6 months)
What is the MAX system? Maximally Discriminative Facial Movement Coding System; are the techniques Izard used to determine emotions.
What is temperament? The relatively consistent, basic dispositions that underlie and modulate much of a person’s behavior. (Usually the same, but can change; innate/inborn)
What are the characteristics of temperament that Alexander Thomas & Stella Chess observed when they studied 133 boys in NYC? Activity level, Regularity/Rhythmicity, Distractibility, Approach/Withdraw, Adaptability, Attention Span/Persistence, Response Intensity/Intensity of Reaction, Response Threshold/Threshold of Responsiveness, and Quality of Mood.
What are the different types of temperament that Thomas and Chess identified? Difficult: 10% of babies; very negative/end of spectrums, Slow to Warm Up: 15%; somewhat negative/withdrawn; middle of spectrums, Easy: 40%; happy/cheerful; positive and on schedule, 35% showed a mixture of temperaments and couldn’t be classified
What is attachment? An affectional bond that one individual forms for another and that endures across time and space.
What is Interactional Synchrony? A relationship/exchange between infant and caregiver; is a mutually rewarding exchange where both parties get satisfaction/benefits from the relationship.
What is an asynchronous relationship? A one-sided/selfish relationship. It’s the parent’s fault, not the child. Not taking into consideration the child’s needs. Concerned with their needs and not the child’s welfare. Ex: beauty pageants (Little Miss Sunshine)
Who was John Bowlby? One of the most notable psychologists focused on attachment. He shifted everyone's thought processes and made them view attachment as a primary drive.
What was the first stage Schaffer and Emmerson identified when they studied infant social responsiveness? Infants are aroused from all parts of environment. Birth to 2 months of age. Like people attention and interacting with environment. Both human and non-human interaction is included
What was the second stage Schaffer and Emmerson identified when they studied infant social responsiveness? Infants display indiscriminate attachment. Around 3 months of age. The infant likes attention from any person
What was the third stage Schaffer and Emmerson identified when they studied infant social responsiveness? Infants show specific attachment; around 7 months
What is Donald Winnicott known for? His studies about transitional objects
About how many youngsters will develop an attachment towards an object? About 60%
What phases of attachment did Mary Ainsworth create? Initial Pre-Attachment Phase, Attachment in the Making Phase, and the Clear Cut Attachment Phase.
How did Ainsworth's studies differ from Schaffer and Emmerson's studies? In her first phase (Initial Pre-Attaachment Phase; from birth to 2 months), Ainsworth only looked at infants wanting attention of the people around them, not including the environment.
What is Ainsworth's "Attachment in the Making Phase?" Where the little one shows a preference for people they know and are familiar with.
What is Ainsworth's "Clear Cut Attachment Phase?" Infant develops and attachment to a particular person and doesn’t want to be separated. 7-24 months. Typically the Mother serves as the attachment.
What was the "Strange Situation?" An experimental method that exposes children to a series of separations and reunions with their mothers (measures quality of attachment)
How many families did Ainsworth study in the 1960s? 26
How long did Ainsworth observe the families? From the infants birth until 54 weeks.
How often did Ainsworth visit each home? Spent 4 hours in each home every 3 weeks.
How many episodes did Ainsworth's "Strange Situation" have? 8
What was Episode One? Lasted 30 seconds; the experimenter introduced Mom and child to the playroom.
What was Episode Two? Mother instructed to take a seat and encourage the baby to play with the toys; 3 minutes. Trying to determine if the mother served as a secure base (did they venture off or stay near her?)
What was Episode Three? 3 minutes; a stranger enters the room and begins talking with the Mother. Tried to assess stranger anxiety (how did they react to the stranger?)
What was Episode Four? Mother leaves and the stranger is left in the room; 3 min, but if the child became upset, she cut the time short. Assessing separation anxiety. She instructed the stranger to try and comfort the child and encourage them to continue playing with the toys.
What was Episode Five? The mom returns to the room, and the stranger leaves. Mom offers comfort and tries to get child interested in toys. Assessed the reaction to the reunion. Time 3 minutes or longer.
What was Episode Six? Mom leaves and the child is all alone. 3 minutes but shorter if necessary. Measured separation anxiety again.
What was Episode Seven? Stranger comes into the room (3 min) and tries to console and interact with the baby. Measures stranger anxiety.
What was Episode Eight? : Stranger leaves, and Mom returns; the same scenario occurs (greets, comforts, and tries to play). 3 minutes. Reaction to the reunion is assessed once more.
What was a secure attachment type? Babies explored the playroom. The Mothers served as a secure base of operation. They were friendly with the stranger. When Mother left, the baby showed mild distress. When Mom came back in, they were happy and sought physical contact.
What does the secure attachment type say about the caregiving? Product of predictable, reliable caregiving.
What was an insecure/avoidant attachment type? Babies separated from Mom. They ignored the stranger and didn’t care about them because they were busy with the toys. When Mom left, the baby could care less and they exhibited no distress. When Mom returned, the babies took no notice and ignored her.
What does the insecure/avoidant attachment type say about the caregiving? Product where the Mother usually does her own thing and ignored the baby.
What was an insecure/resistant attachment type? Babies wouldn’t venture off, so Mom wasn’t a secure base. Fearful of the stranger. When Mom left they threw a fit (severe separation anxiety). Mom returned they wanted to be physically close but they would kick/hit if they made physical contact with Mom.
Whaat does the insecure/resistant attachment type say about the caregiving? Product of hot and cold caregiving; caring one minute and aloof the next; unpredictable.
Who added the Disorganized/Disoriented attachment type to Ainsworth's work? Mary Main
What was the Disorganized/Disoriented attachment type? the kids that fit in this category were abused. The kids wouldn’t venture out and play, and had stranger anxiety. They had a mixed reaction to the Mom’s return; they were more insecure.
What were Mildred Parten's six categories of play? Unoccupied, Onlooker, Solitary, Parallel, Associative, and Cooperative.
How do preschoolers define themselves? By body parts, material attributes, and bodily activities.
At what age range do kids define themselves by adding mental activity to their physical state and traits? Between ages 6-8.
What did Baumrind work with to create? The Family Socialization Project.
What was the Family Socialization Project? A study of the two dimensions of parenting behavior: responsiveness and demandingness.
What is an Authoritarian parenting style? Parents have very little to no responsiveness, but have extremely high demandingness. Rules with an iron fist. Highly punitive discipline techniques. May be mean and/or abusive.
What is a Permissive/Indulgent parenting style? Is somewhat responsive. They have no demands out of their child and allow them to have free reign; excessive freedom and no rules. Most likely there’s a spoiled child and a spoiled adult.
What is a Permissive/Indifferent parenting style? Parent allows excessive freedom and there is no responsiveness. Parents are concerned with their own needs. Ex: substance abuse cases. They don’t care about the child.
What is an Authoritative parenting style? This is the ideal parent. Is definitely responsive and very democratic (want to talk about the issues). They do demand the child to act appropriately, but aren’t abusive. They use reinforcement and praise.
What is a Harmonious parenting style? Equalitarian relationship = equal. Friends and/or buddies with kids.
What is Lois Hoffman known for? Relative Deprivation: Siblings compare themselves to the other and feel like the other is favored over themselves.
What are some sources of sibling differences? Ordinal position, Age When an Event Occurs, Gender, Physical Appearance, and Idiosyncratic Experiences.
What is an Expressive Tie? A social link that is formed when we invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to another person. Social interactions that rest on expressive ties are primary relationships (people we value and are committed to).
What is an Instrumental Tie? A social link that is formed when we cooperate with another person to achieve a limited goal. Instrumental ties are secondary relationships (a means to an end relationship; they’re just there to perform a task; no attachment to them)
What attracts us to others? Physical attractiveness, similiarity, complementary, mutual liking, and competence/special skills.
What was the #1 characteristic shared by men and woman when recognizing Mr. and Ms. Right? Mutual Attraction and Love.
What is assumed similiarity? Use yourself as a reference point and seeing others like you; naïve. Ex: an honest person approaching others like they’re honest and have the same beliefs.
What is the fundamental attribution error? Tendency to assume that people’s behavior arises from dispositional factors rather than from situational factors.
What are stereotypes? Oversimplified but widely shared belief of a group of individuals. Ex: All mentally ill people are dangerous, all blondes are dumb.
What is an Assortative dating type? Playing the field, going out with different people.
What is an Exclusive dating type? Precursor to engagement; just you and them.
What are the principles of dating? Propinquity, similarity, complementarity, and compatibility.
What is Exogamy? Pressure to date or marry someone outside of a specific/certain group. This form of pressure is usually from parents. Ex: gender, marry outside of one’s family
What is Endogamy? Pressure to date or marry someone within a certain group. Ex: ethnicity, social class, religion
What theory is Murstein known for? Stimulus Value-Role Theory: All relationships proceed in a fixed order of three stages.
What are the three stages to the Stimulus Value-Role Theory? Stimulus stage, Value stage, and the Roll stage.
What theory is Steinberg known for? Triangular Theory of Love
Love is made up of what three elements? Intimacy, passion, and commitment.
What are the types of cohabitating relationship? Linus Blanket: Doing it for security reasons, safety Emancipation: To feel grown up/adult/free Convenience: It’s cheaper; we’ll split the bills
What is the traditional style of marriage? Male works and the female stays at home. Sex is initiated by the man. Decisions are made by the man.
What is the egalitarian style of marriage? Both people may work. Both people take care of the kids. Decisions are made jointly. Either party can initiate sex. This style is more common now.
What is the Conflict/Habituated marital style? Fight all the time, no pleasant things to say. Some enjoy this. It’s not for the make-up sex after. They’re always at the other’s throats.
What is the Devitalized marital style? A once loving marriage, but it's become an empty shell. Both members stay in the same household. Both members don’t spend quality time together anymore. They could be staying together for children or financial reasons.
What is the Passive Congenial marital style? Dull from the start, they care about each other but the sparks aren’t there anymore. It’s more like you’re marrying your friend, but they aren’t your lover. Ex: arranged marriages fall into this category.
What is the Vital marital style? Ideal relationship; have love and compassion. Both enjoy being around the other, and they’re still able to maintain a sense of individuality. They take time to still be themselves and to keep their own interests.
What is the Total marital style? Completely immersed with that person, like you cut yourself and your spouse off from everyone else. These people alienate others with their lovey-dovey-ness.
Created by: ST3PH3Nii3
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