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1110 2

Test 2

When filtration is increased, what must happen to the technical factors to maintain the same density They must be increased
The half-value layer is typically expressed in
What is the most common filter material used tungsten
Patient’s absorb x-ray photons primary
Problems of unequal subject density can be solved by using filters
The thickest portion of the wedge filter is placed over cathode
Define total filtration Inherent plus added
Collimation devices are considered part of the filtration added
Most of the inherent filtration of a typical x-ray equipment comes from the tube
How does filtration affect patient dose decreases
By inserting absorbing materials into the primary beam (filtration),undesirable is eliminated Low energy
Can filtration remove a portion of the useful beam yes
Filtration outside of the tube and housing is considered to be added
Filtration is typically added between the and tube and pt
Describe inherent filtration Anything in the tube, makes up 1.5
What is a compound filter 2 or more materials added together. Highest atomic # closest to the tube and the lowest closest to the pt
Even when filtration is increased, the percentage of attenuated photons
as photon energy ___ Decreased
Half-value layer affects patient dose
Define a half-value layer Amount of filtration needed to reduce the beam ½ original value
Inherent filtration of a mammographic unit is than that of a regular diagnostic unit Less
As the tube ages, the anode begins to pit and the glass envelope may gain a mild coating of vaporized metal. This causes a in inherent filtration increased
What does filtration permit the radiographer to do to the photon emission spectrum Remove low energy electrons and harden the beam
If the half-value layer of diagnostic radiographic equipment is too low, it may be corrected by decrease filtration
When x-raying a thoracic spine, what compensating filter is most commonly used wedge
filtration occurs as the primary beam passes through the glass window of the x-ray tube Inherent
Al/Eq filter thickness would result in the lowest entrance skin dose to a patient 3.0
How many half-value layers must be added to the primary beam to reduce its intensity to less than 20% of its original value 3
What is the predominant interaction through most of the diagnostic x-ray range in the human body compton
interactions with matter results in a radiograph with a long scale of contrast compton
What is an annihilation reaction Negatron is absorbed by another atom. Positron is crazy and comes to rest with another – electron. When they combine they make 2 new protons in diff directions
What is radiation fog Any unwanted density form compton
At what energy level do electrons posses the highest total energy K-shell
Scatter is when
During photoelectric absorption, the ejected electron is called photoelectron
What is attenuation Loss of energy as beam passes through matter
Compton scattering occurs when an incident x-ray photon interacts with a
electron Outer shell
Secondary radiation energies are highest when using during fluoroscopic examinations No skirt
What is a photoelectron Ejected inner shell electron
A scattered photon possesses as the incident photon during coherent scattering
The photon that exits the atom after a Compton scattering is called Recoil electron
During the process of attenuation, the x-ray photon may interact with
What happens if a photon interacts with matter and scatters
What shell electron is ejected during photoelectric absorption k
Some x-ray photons may pass through matter and not with that matter interact
What happens to the x-ray photons in the beam during the process of attenuation Some are absorbed and the others are scattered
Elements with Z numbers have inner shell electrons more tightly bound to the nucleus high
What is Photoelectric Absorption X-ray photon interaction with an inner shell electron
What happens as the angle of deflection is increased from 0 to 180 degrees
As the angle increases the speed of the deflected e increases
has a significant impact on the x-ray image scatter
Photoelectric interaction with matter results in a radiograph with scale
of contrast High scale (extremities)
During the photoelectric interaction, as an electron transfers from an outer shell to a vacant inner shell, energy is released in the form of photoelectron
What is the electron dislodged during Compton scattering called recoil
An interaction which occurs between very low energy x-ray photons and matter is called coherent
During Compton scattering, the incident photon energy is divided between the ejected and the scattered
As the electrons shells move further from the nucleus, total electro energies
and binding energies increase, decrease
During Compton scattering, the incident photon energy is divided between what Ejected electron and the scatter photon
What happens during pair production Energy from the x-ray photon is converted to matter in the form of 2 electrons
What is photon absorption
Energy released during the filling of the inner shell during photoelectric interaction is known as
During photoelectric interaction, the incident x-ray photon must be than the binding energy of the inner-shell electron greater
What happens during coherent scattering Photons get excited and released energy into another photon with the same wavelength and frequency.
What is backscatter Photon goes back in the direction it came from
What is the negatively charged electron termed during pair production negatron
What happens as kVp increases, the total number of photons transmitted without interaction does what increase
A photoelectric interaction is more likely to occur when the x-ray photon energy is slightly than the binding energy of the electrons greater
A photoelectric interaction is more likely to occur with an electron which is bound in its orbit loosely
As kVp , the percentage of Compton interactions increase, increase
Photodisintegration is relevant in diagnostic imaging ranges. NA
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