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ART 112 EXAM 3

Sensitivity Heightened awareness and responsiveness
Flexibility ability to adapt to new situations and find innovative relationships
Originality uncommon responses to situations and problems
Playfulness Sense of human and free experimentation
Productivity ability to generate ideas easily and frequently and to follow through
Fluency readiness to allow free-flow of ideas
Analytical skill Taking problems to see how they work
Organizational skill putting problems back together in a coherent order
Style A characteristic or group of characteristics that we recognize as constant, recurring or coherent. Characteristic subject matter or materials, distinctive ways of handling media, preferences for certain colors, etc.
Megalithic "Big Stones"
Megalithic architecture Built from large, unworked stone
Menhir standing stone. Megalith set upright to form a vertical.
Dolmen two menhirs supporting a horizontal stone lintel.
Post-and-lintel in architecture, a structural system based on two or more uprights (posts) supporting a horizontal crosspiece (lintel or beam)
Tensile strength In architecture, the ability of a material to span horizontal distances with minimum support from underneath.
Henge Circle of menhirs or dolmens
Tumulus large mounds or earth or rubble built up over a burial chamber, which is supported by either a dolmen or corbel.
Corbel primitive form of arch made from megaliths
Ziggurat an ancient Mesopotamian architecture, a monumental stepped structure symbolically understood as a mountain and serving as a platform for one or more temples.
Adobe Sun-dried (as opposed to furnace-baked) brick made of clay mixed with straw
Hypostyle An interior space filled with rows of columns that serve to support the roof
Clerestory the topmost part of a wall, extending above flanking elements such as aisles and set with windows to admit light. In a basilica or church, the clerestory is the topmost zone of the nave.
Stylobate a platform of stone on which the entire structure rests. Functions to provide firm base for the columns in lieu of digging foundations below ground.
Colonnade Row of columns, each with base, shaft, capital
Entablature the horizontal element supported by the columns. It subdivides into three elements.
Architrave the supportive lintel that rests on the capitals of the columns and supports the weight of what is placed above. It is executed in sections; the joints between sections appear over the centers of that columns below.
Frieze element above the architrave and below the cornice. Usually decorative.
Cornice projective elements above the frieze. It projects forward from the surface of the facade by inches or even feet. Function is to protect the painted relief sculpture of the frieze from rain damage.
Pediment Triangular element above the entablature. Hides trussed roof behind the facade. Decorated with sculpture. Sometimes the sculpture is in relief; much more frequent is placement of free-standing figures on the ledge provided by the cornice.
Raking cornices cornices that project out over the sculpture, usually free-standing, placed in the pediment to protect it from rain damage.
Doric order earliest and simplest. Columns have box shaped lid capitals. Shafts may or may not be fluted. Frieze is always subdivided into triglyphs and metopes. Ethos is masculine.
Ionic order Characteristic capital is voluted (shapes resembling ram's horns or scrolls). Columns always fluted. Frieze always continuous. Ethos is feminine.
Corinthian order characteristic capital is decorated with the acanthus leaf motif. Columns fluted. Frieze continuous. Ethos suggests excessive decoration. (Developed by Greece but used by Rome)
Arcade a series of arches placed side by side and sharing piers.
Barrel vault a series of arches placed one behind another, each with piers, impost, voussoirs, and keystone. It creates a tunnel-like space of infinite possible length. The sectiona of wall between the arches can be pierced for doors and windows.
Groin vault two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles. The space spanned is a square or rectangle. If the arches that form the groin are 35 feet wide, then that space spanned at the groin is 625 square feet. This is the building block of interior space.
Dome An upside down bowl shaped form created when arches span around a central point at its apex. Until the baroque era, domes were always perfectly round at their base. They frequently appear over groin vaults
Pendentives spherical triangles. They are a masonry membrane that curves upward from the piers and inwards from one arch to the other of the groin, forming a complete circle at the top of which the dome rests.
Nave Central aisle used by congregation
Side aisles alongside nave for use by pilgrims and processions
Apse semi-circular space at end of nave for altar, roofed by a semi-dome.
Transepts "arms of the cross", for use by clergy/monks
Ambulatory passageway behind choir and apse for use by pilgrims
Tympanum Filler at the top of round arch
Trumeau separates the two doors
Jambs vertical supports on either side of opening
Ferroconcrete Concrete reinforced internally with iron rods or steel mesh
Suspension A structural system in architecture, most common in bridges, in which the weight of a horizontal member is suspended from steel cables supported by uprights called pylons.
Cantilever In architecture, a horizontal structural element supported at one end only, with the other end projecting into space.
Geodesic dome an architectural structure invented by R. Buckminster Fuller, based on triangles arranged into tetrahedrons (four-faceted solids)
Created by: 1740626295
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