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PSYC 2210

Final Exam

QuestionAnswer
empirical evidence information obtained through systematic observations and experiments
developmental scientists experts who study development - regardless of their disciplinary training
prenatal period the period of development from conception to birth
infancy the period of development from birth to about age 2
early childhood the period of development from about ages 2 to 6
middle childhood the period of development from about ages 6 to 11
adolescence the period of development from about ages 11 to 20
young adulthood the period of development from about ages 20 to 40
middle adulthood the period of development from about 40 to 65
later adulthood the period of development from about age 65 on
physical development the domain of development that includes changes in size, shape, outward appearance, and inner physical functional changes in physical capabilities; and changes in the structure and function of the brain
cognitive development the domain of development that involves changes in intellectual abilities, including memory, thinking, reasoning, language, problem solving, and decision making
socioemotional development the domain of development that includes changes in feelings and motivation, temperament and personality, and relationships with others. Sometimes referred to as psychosocial development.
development relatively enduring growth and change that makes an individual better adapted to the environment, by enhancing the individual's ability to engage in, understand, and experience more complex behavior, thinking and emotions.
developmental trajectory a pathway of developmental change that connects the past, present, and future.
theory a set of ideas and principles based on empirical findings that explain related natural phenomena.
psychoanalytic theory the theory of human behavior and development, first articulated by Sigmund Freud, that focuses on the inner self and how emotions determine the way we interpret our experiences and thus how we act.
four stages of psychosexual development oral, anal, phallic, genital
Erikson's theory of psychosocial development there is a progression of social and emotional stages that people go through from infancy to later adulthood.
learning theory the theory of human behavior, based on principles of classical and/or operant conditioning, as well as observational learning, that stresses the role of external influences on behavior
classical conditioning a process of associative learning by which a subject comes to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response
operant conditioning a process of learning in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased as a result of reward or punishment that follows
behavioral therapy an attempt to change behavior through the deliberate use of rewards and punishments
social learning theory a theory of human behavior that emphasizes the ways in which individuals learn by observing others and through the application of social rewards and punishments
observational learning a process of learning based on the observation of others
cognitive-developmental perspective a perspective on human development that emphasizes qualitative changes in the ways that individuals think as they mature, mainly associated with the work of Jean Piaget.
sensorimotor stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development from birth to about age 2, during which infants learn my relating sensations to motor action
preoperational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development from approximately ages 2 to 7 , during which children acquire a mental storehouse of images and symbols, especially spoken and written words
concrete operational stage in Piaget's theory, from approximately ages 7 to 11, during which children make giant strides in their ability to organize ideas and think logically, but where their logical reasoning is limited to real objects and actual experiences and events
formal operational stage in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development that emerges approximately at age 11, during which individuals develop the ability to apply logical reasoning to abstract phenomena
assimilation In Piaget's theory, the child's attempt to fit new information into his or her existing way of thinking.
accommodation In Piaget's theory, the child's adaptation of an existing way of thinking in response to new information
ecological perspective a perspective on human development that emphasizes the contexts, both proximal and distant, in which development occurs, often associated with the work of Urie Bronfenbrenner.
dynamic systems theory a perspective on human development that views the many facets of development as part of a single, dynamic, constantly changing system
human genome the complete set of genes for the creation and development of the human organism
nativism the idea that human characteristics are innate or inborn, not acquired or learned
preformationism the seventeenth-century theory of inheritance that hypothesized that all the characteristics of an adult were prefigured in miniature within either the sperm or the ovum
genetic determinism the idea that human qualities are genetically determined and cannot be changed by nurture or education
eugenics a philosophy that advocates the use of controlled breeding to encourage childbearing among individuals with characteristics considered "desirable" and discourage (or eliminate) childbearing among those with "undesirable" traits
tabula rasa "blank slate"; the notion, usually associated with the philosopher John Locke, that nothing about development is predetermined and that the child is entirely a product of his or her environment and experience
heritability the extent to which a phenotypic trait is genetically determined
twin studies a method for estimating heritability in which the degree of similarity in a trait that is observed among identical twins is compared with that observed among fraternal twins
identical twins twins born when a single fertilized egg divides, resulting in the birth of two individuals whose genetic makeup is identical
fraternal twins twins born when two separate eggs are fertilized, who are therefore no more alike genetically than other brothers and sisters
adoption studies a method for estimating heritability in which similarities between children and their adoptive parents are compared with similarities between children and their biological parents
family relatedness studies a method for estimating heritability by comparing the similarity of children who vary in their genetic relatedness (siblings, half-siblings, step-siblings)
shared environment in behavior genetics, the environment that siblings have in common
nonshared environment in behavioral genetics, the environment that siblings do not have in common, such as the peers with whom they are friends
theory of evolution typically refers to the variant of the model of evolution formalized by Charles Darwin, which asserts that organisms evolve and change through the process of natural selection
survival of the fittest within Darwin's theory of evolution, the notion that organisms that are best equipped to survive in a given context are more likely to reproduce and pass their genetic material on to future generations
natural selection within Darwin's theory of evolution, the process through which adaptive traits that are heritable become more common while maladaptive traits that are heritable become less common
epigenesis the gradual process through which organisms develop over time in an increasingly differentiated and complex fashion as a consequence of the interaction between genes and the environment
stem cells primitive, undifferentiated cells or "precells," found in large numbers in the embryo
bipedalism being able to stand and walk on two feet
canalization the degree to which an element of development is dictated by the common genetic program that all humans inherit
chromosomes strands of DNA that carry genes and associated proteins
base pairs pairs of adenine and thymine and of guanine and cytosine that make up the "rungs" of the DNA molecule
gene a segment of DNA, occupying a specific place on a chromosome
genotype the underlying genetic makeup of an individual organism
phenotype the observable traits and characteristics of an individual organism
mitosis the process through which all cells other than gametes reproduce, in which a cell divides and each resulting cell receives a full copy of all 46 chromosomes
gametes reproductive cells; sperm in males and ova (eggs) in females
meiosis the process through which gametes (sperm and ova) are produced, in which each resulting gamete has half of the genetic material of the parent cell
alleles different forms of the same gene occupying the same location on each of the chromosomes that make up a chromosomal pair
additive heredity the process of genetic transmission that results in a phenotype that is a mixture of the mother's and father's traits
dominant/recessive heredity the process of genetic transmission in which one version (allele) of a gene is dominant over another, resulting in the phenotypic expression of only the dominant allele
regulator genes genes whose function is to turn other genes on or off at different points in the life cycle or in response to events in the environment.
mutations copying errors in the replication of DNA that alter the proteins a gene or chromosome produces
microsystem in Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective on development, a setting in which the child interacts with others face-to-face, such as a family or classroom
mesosystem In Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective, the system of interconnected microsystems
exosystem In Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective on development, the layer of the context that includes the larger settings that children know only in part, such as the neighborhood and settings in which children themselves do not participate, such as work.
macrosystem In Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective on development, the layer of the context that includes the larger forces that define a society at a particular point in time - culture, politics, economics, mass media, historical events.
familism placing a high value on the interests of the family rather than the individual
gene expression the process through which genes influence the production of specific proteins, which in turn influence the phenotype
cross-fostering in animal research, the process of removing an offspring from its biological parents and having it raised by other adults, often with different attributes than the biological parents
gene-environment interaction the process through which genotypes produce different phenotypes in different contexts
reaction range an array of phenotypic possibilities that a genotype has the potential to produce as a result of the context in which the organism develops
passive gene-environment correlations similarity between the results of genetic and environmental influences due to the fact that the same parents provide both genes and environments for their children.
evocative gene-environment correlations similarity between the results of genetic and environmental influences due to the fact that genotypically different individuals elicit different responses from their environments
active gene-environment correlations similarity between the results of genetic and environmental influences due to the fact that children select contexts that they find rewarding, and that therefore tend to maintain or strengthen their genetically influenced traits
niche-picking the process through which individuals select the environments in which they spend time
gestation the period from conception to birth that lasts about 280 days, counting from the mother's last menstrual period
ovum female sex cell; girls are born with about 2 million ova
ovulation an event that occurs about every 28 days for women, in which a follicle in one of the ovaries ruptures, releasing a mature ovum to begin its 4-5 day journey down a fallopian tube toward the uterus
fertilization insemination of an ovum by a sperm
zygote the new cell created when the sperm and egg fuse
placenta the support system that - via the umbilical cord - provides food and oxygen to the developing child and carries waste products away
implantation on reaching the uterus, the zygote embeds in the uterus's nutrient-rich lining (endometrium)
infertility failure to conceive a child after 12 months of sexual intercourse without birth control
fertility drugs hormone-based agents that enhance ovarian activity
artificial insemination the most common treatment for male infertility, which involves inserting sperm directly into the woman's uterus with a syringe
in vitro fertilization (IVF) the best-known and most common advanced reproductive technology procedure in which the woman takes fertility drugs so that her body releases more than one egg, her ova are surgically extracted at ovulation, and then are mixed with her partner's sperm
surrogate mother the woman who is impregnated with a male's sperm through artificial insemination, or with the couple's embryo, conceived in vitro
ectoderm the outer layer of an embryo's cells that will become fetal skin, nerves, and sense organs
mesoderm the middle layer of an embryo's cells that will become muscles, bones, the circulatory system and some organs
endoderm the inner layer of an embryo's cells that will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract and glands
amniotic sac a protective membrane filled with warm liquid that cushions the embryo
neurogenesis the production of neurons or nerve cells
quickening the first fetal movements the mother can feel
temperament a child's emotional and behavioral predispositions
Turner's syndrome A condition in which the embryo's cells have only one X chromosome
ultrasound imaging a technology that provides a living picture of prenatal development
multifactoral disorders disorders that result from interactions among multiple genes and between genes and the environment
genetic counseling a profession designed to help couples understand how heredity might affect their child
karyotype a picture of the individual's chromosomes
preimplantation genetic diagnosis a screening technique that involves removing cells from a test-tube embryo to determine if the cell contains genes linked to fatal childhood disorders
amniocentesis a prenatal test in which, using ultrasound as a guide, the doctor inserts a thin needle through the woman's abdomen into the uterus to withdraw amniotic fluid that contains skin cells from the fetus
chorionic villi sampling a fetal test that involves removal of a small piece of the villi, extensions that attach the amniotic sac to the wall of the uterus.
spina bifida a developmental condition in which the spinal cord does not close completely
anencephaly a developmental condition in which part of the brain does not develop
teratogen any environmental substance that can have a negative impact on fetal development and possibly result in birth defects or even death
rubella German measles, a disease that can be devastating for the fetus if the mother contracts it during the first 3 months of pregnancy
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS
AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
fetal alcohol syndrome a pattern of disabilities found in babies and children of mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy
fetal alcohol effects fetal deformities that are the result of significant (but not chronic) exposure to alchohol
sudden infant death syndrome unexplained death, usually during the night, of an infant under 1 year old
sensitive period a time in development during which the organism is especially vulnerable to experience
sleeper effect an outcome that is displaced in time from a cause
oxytocin a maternal pituitary gland hormone that triggers uterine contractions
anoxia cutoff of the supply of oxygen through the umbilical cord before the baby can breathe independently
preterm babies born before the 37th week of pregnancy
low birth weight babies born weighing less than 5 1/2 pounds
respiratory distress syndrome a condition common to preterm babies whose lungs do not produce enough surfactant that helps carry oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the lungs
Apgar test a delivery room test that assesses a newborn with a score of 0, 1 or 2 on each of five scales: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale a test for newborns that uses reflexes and social interaction to assess their overall well-being, including motor capabilities, state changes, attention, and central nervous system stability
directionality a principle of development that refers to how body proportions change
cephalocaudal development advances from head to tail
proximodistal development progresses from the center of the body outward
independence of systems a principle of development that asserts that different parts of the body develop along different timetables
norms average outcomes on a characteristic
individual differences the variations among individuals on a characteristic
central nervous system the division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord, that processes information and directs behavior
subcortical structures brain components that control state of arousal
limbic system the part of the nervous system that manages emotions
cortex thin layers of outer tissue that cover the brain
association areas the parts of the brain concerned wiht awareness, attention, memory, and the integration of information
hemispheres the two halves of the brain
corpus callosum the connection between the two halves or hemispheres of the brain
visual cortex the part of the brain that regulates sight
auditory cortex the part of the brain that monitors hearing
sensorimotor cortex the part of the brain concerned with touch
motor cortex the part of the brain that controls voluntary movement
frontal cortex the brain's command center responsible for thinking, planning, initiative, impulse control, and creativity
Wenicke's area the region on the left side of the brain dedicated to language of speech comprehension
Broca's area the region on the left side of the brain dedicated to language or speech production
neurons cells that carry information across the body and brain
cell body the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and biochemical mechanisms to keep the cell alive and determine whether the cell will fire
dendrites branched extensions of a neuron that act like antennas that pick up signals from other neurons
axon the part of the cell that carries signals away from the cell body toward other neurons. At their tips, axons divide into many axon terminals.
synapse the connection between one neuron's axon and another neuron's dendrite
neurotransmitters electrochemicals through which neurons intercommunicate
action potential an electrical charge inside the neuron
synaptogenesis the development of connections between neurons through the grown of axons and dendrites
synaptic pruning the process of elimination of unused and unnecessary synapses
plasticity the capacity of the brain to be modified by experience
myelinization the process through which cell axons become sheathed in myelin
myelin the white fatty tissue that encases cell axons
cerebellum the part of the brain associated with balance and control of body movements
multiple sclerosis a disease in which the autoimmune system strips neurons of myelin, leading to loss of motor control
microelectrode recording a technique used to measure the activity of individual cells
electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings measurements acquired with sensors at the scalp that show electrical activity of masses of individual cells
event-related potentials (ERPs) specific patterns of brain activity evoked by a specific stimulus
experience-expectant processes prewired processes in the brain
experience-dependent processes brain processes that involve the active formation of new synaptic connections in response to the individual's unique experience
modifiability a principle of development that asserts that, although cells are predestined for specific functions, their function can be changed
sensitive periods times in development when the organism is especially open to environmental influence
compensation a kind of plasticity in which cells substitute for others, permitting recovery of function after loss or damage
autonomic nervous system the division of the nervous system that regulates many body activities without our voluntary control, such as breathing, blood flow, digestion
cycle moving in an identifiable and predictable rhythm
reflexes simple, involuntary responses to certain stimuli that have (or had) adaptive significance
dynamic systems theory a theory that asserts that change in one area of development impacts others
autism spectrum disorder a disorder characterized by difficult in expressing needs and inability to socialize
infant-directed speech a special speech register reserved for babies that simplifies normal adult-directed speech in many ways
multimodal perceptions the perception of information about objects and events in the world that stimulates many senses at once
habituation the process in which a baby compares each new stimulus with a developing memory of the stimulus based on previous exposures, thus learning about the stimulus
novelty responsiveness following habituation, the process in which a baby looks more at a new stimulus than at a familiar one
adaptation the process whereby knowledge is altered by experience. Adaptation involves two complementary process: assimilation and accommodation
assimilation the process by which information can be incorporated according to what the infant already knows. Assimilation allows the infant to use existing understanding to make sense of the world.
accommodation the process by which the infant changes to reach new understanding; that is, the modification of existing understanding to make it apply to a new situation. Accommodation allows the infant to understand reality better and better.
sensorimotor period a developmental time, consisting of a six-stage sequence, when thinking consists of coordinating sensory information with motor activity
object permanence the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it cannot be sensed
mental representation the ability to hold in the mind an image of objects (and people) that are not physically present
categorization a process that involves grouping separate items into a set according to some rule
infantile amnesia the adult recollection of almost nothing of events that took place before the age of 3 or 4
deferred imitation reproducing a series of actions seen at an earlier time
exploratory play children's play in which activities are tied to the tangible properties of objects
symbolic play children's play that enacts activities performed by the self, others, and objects in pretend or make-believe scenarios
validity the degree to which a test measures what it was designed to measure
predictive validity when performance at one time relates meaningfully to performance at a later time
scaffolding providing learning opportunities, materials, hints, and clues when a child has difficulty with a task
ethnotheories parents' belief systems that motivate them to behave in the ways they do
phonology sounds in language that are produced and perceived
semantics the meaning of words and sentences, or the content of speech.
syntax the rules that define the ways in which words and phrases are arranged to ensure correct and meaningful communication. Also called grammar.
comprehension understanding language
production speaking the language
morphemes units of meaning in a language
referential a linguistic style hallmarked by vocabularies that include a high proportion of nous and speech that provides information and refers to things in the environment
expressive a linguistic style hallmarked by early vocabularies that have relatively more verbs and speech that uses social routines to communicate feelings and desires
infant-directed speech a special speech register reserved for babies that simplifies normal adult-directed speech in many ways
holophrase a single word that stands in for a phrase and has different meanings depending on the context
induction the process of using a limited set of examples to draw conclusions that permit inferences about new cases
fast mapping a phenomenon that refers to how easily children pick up words they have heard only a few times
whole object assumption a concept that refers to children's belief that a novel label refers to the "whole object" and not to its parts, substance, or other properties
mutual exclusivity a concept that refers to an infant's assumption that any give object has only one name)
socioeconomic status (SES) the education, occupation, and income of householders
universal grammar Chomsky's term for aspects of syntax that are thought to be innate and built into every infant's brain
Broca's area the region on the left side of the brain dedicated to language or speech production
Wernicke's area the region on the left side of the brain dedicated to language or speech comprehension
emotions feelings that give strong and informative cues about one's current state
temperament the biologically based source of individual differences in behavioral functioning
attachments infants' specific lasting, social relationships with others, especially parents and caregivers
emotional expression the communication of feelings to others through facial expressions, gestures, and vocalizations
emotional understanding the interpretation (reading) of the emotional expression of others
primary emotions the feelings of joy, surprise, sadness, anger, fear and shyness that appear to be deeply rooted in human biology and develop early in life
secondary emotions the feelings of embarrassment, pride, guilt, shame, and envy that emerge in the second and third years of life
mirror neurons cells in the brain that are activated both when we do something and when we see someone else do the same thing
social referencing the tendency to use others' emotional expressions to interpret uncertain or ambiguous events
positive affectitivy a dimension of temperament that reflects the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic and alert (eg, cheerful, outgoing, etc.)
negative affectivity a dimension of temperament that reflects the extent to which a person feels distressed (sad, angry)
inhibited children children who are characteristically shy, fearful and timid
difficult children children who are easily irritated and hard to soothe
goodness of fit a concept that refers to a match of the child's temperament and the demands of the environment.
environment of evolutionary adaptedness the context in which our species evolved
separation protest a signal, characterized by crying, that is aimed at making attachment figures return
sensitive period a time in development during which the organism is especially vulnerable to experience
stranger wariness the hesitancy that infants show at around 10 months when they are approached by unfamiliar people
Strange Situation an experimental paradigm that reveals security of attachment
reciprocity a lesson in social interaction in which partners take turns acting and reacting to the other's behavior
effactance a lesson in social interaction that involves learning that one's behavior can affect the behavior of others in a consistent and predictable fashion
trust a lesson in social interaction that involves learning that another person can be counted on to respond when signaled
secure base the trustworthy place infants count on for protection and accessibility when needed as they explore and interact with other people
internal working models children's thoughts about their caregivers and themselves with respect to their caregivers constitute internal working models of attachment
contact comfort the gratification derived from touch
normative development a pattern of development that is typical, or average
individual differences the variation among individuals on a characteristic
norms average outcomes rather than actual or even ideal ones
body mass index (BMI) BMI is calculated by dividing weight by height squared
obesity determined by body mass index. Children in the 95th percentile or higher are considered obese. Children in the 85th to 94th percentile are considered overweight
gross motor skills abilities required to control the large movements of the arms, legs and feet, or the whole body, such as running, jumping, climbing and throwing
fine motor skills abilities required to control smaller movements of the hand and fingers, such as picking up small objects and tying one's shoes
kwashiorkor a form of malnutrition in which individuals have an adequate intake of calories, but an inadequate intake of protein
marasmus a form of malnutrition in which individuals are not receiving enough protein or enough calories
cortisol a hormone secreted when individuals are exposed to stress
reversibility a logical operation that requires an understanding that relations can be returned to their original state by reversing operations - if nothing has been added or taken away
pretend play make-believe play in which common objects are often used to symbolize other objects
classification the ability to divide or sort objects into different sets and subsets, and to consider their interrelationships
conservation the understanding that some characteristics of objects (including volume, mass, and number) do not change despite changes in form or appearance when nothing is added or taken away
egocentrism in Piaget's theory of cognitive development, egocentrism refers to teh child's inability to see other people's viewpoints
animism belief that inanimate objects are alive and have thoughts, feelings, and motives like humans
theory of mind the ability to attribute mental states - beliefs, intents, desires, knowledge - to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that are different from one's own
zone of proximal development the gap between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with assistance
scaffolding providing learning opportunities, materials, hints, and clues when a child has difficulty with a task
guided participation the varied ways children learn their society's values and practices through participation in family and community activities
continuous performance task a laboratory task designed to assess attentiveness and impulsivity by pushing a button when a specific object appears on the computer screen
impulsivity as measured by the continuous performance task, how often a child incorrectly pushes a button designating that an object is on the screen
sensory memory a subconscious process of picking up sensory information - sights, sounds, smells, touch - from the environment
working memory conscious, short-term representation of what a person is actively thinking about at a given time
long-term memory the collection of information that is mentally encoded and stored, it is believed to have potentially unlimited capacity and no time limits
generic memory a script or general outline of how familiar activities occur based on experience
episodic memory recall of a particular incident that took place at a specific time and place
autobiographical memory recall of individual episodes that are personally meaningful, which begins at about age 4 and may last for decades
telegraphic speech simple, meaningful two-word utterances spoken by young children
overregulation when children mistakenly apply regular grammatical rules to irregular cases
structural quality characteristics of child-care settings, such as group size, child/adult ratios, and caregiver education and training
process quality an assessment of children's interactions and experiences in child-care settings. Higher process quality is characterized by more sensitive and caring interactions with adults, rich conversations, and stimulating materials and activities
socialization the process of developing cultural values and rules for behavior
self-conception a cognitive construction that reflects the child's level of mental development and a social construction that reflects the child's interactions and experiences with other people
self-esteem a global assessment of self-worth
initiative vs. guilt the third stage in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development during which mastery of new skills becomes a primary goal
gender identity a person's sense of self as male or female
gender constancy the concept that gender is permanent and immutable
gender socialization social norms conveyed to children that concern characteristics associated with being male of female
rough-and-tumble play physically vigorous behaviors such as chasing, jumping, and play fighting that are accompanied by shared smiles and laughter
gender schema a mental network of beliefs and expectation about males versus females
self-conscious emotion an emotion that involves evaluation of oneself, such as embarrassment or pride
emotional intelligence the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and to use that information to guide thinking and action
emotional regulation the ability to inhibit, enhance, maintain, and modulate emotional arousal to accomplish a goal
effortful control the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to make a nondominant response, to engage in planning, and to regulate reactive tendencies
externalizing problems psychosocial problems that are manifested in outward symptoms, such as aggression or noncompliance
prosocial behavior a voluntary action intended to benefit another person
conscience an internalized sense of right and wrong that invokes positive feelings about doing the right thing, and negative feelings about doing something wrong
empathy understanding and sharing another person's feelings
aggression actions that are intended to harm or injure another person
physical aggression behaviors such as hitting, pushing, and biting that are intended to harm another
verbal aggression aggressive behavior such as threats and name calling
relational aggression aggressive behavior designed to lower another's self-esteem, social standing, or both
reactive aggression aggressive behavior that is a defensive response to provocation
instrumental aggression aggressive behavior designed to achieve a goal for oneself
hostile aggression aggressive behavior that intends harm as its primary goal, in contrast to instrumental aggression that has the primary goal of achieving some end or controlling resources
agonism behaviors by very young children that may unintentionally hurt or harm another person
developmental trajectory a pattern of changes in an individual over a relatively long period of time
internalizing problems psychosocial problems that are manifested in inward symptoms, such as depression or anxiety
authoritative parenting parenting style characterized by high warmth and high control
authoritarian parenting parenting style characterized by low warmth and high control
permissive parenting parenting style characterized by high warmth and low control, also known as "indulgent" parenting
disengaged parenting parenting style characterized by low warmth and low control
peers age-mates who are equals in terms of skills and maturity
simple pretend play fantasy play behavior in which children watch or mimic each other but do not collaborate in any organized way
associative pretend play social fantasy play in which children create a story or script with a series of actions in a meaningful sequence
cooperative pretend play social fantasy play in which children develop a script and play reciprocal roles (eg, mother and baby)
homophily the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with others who are similar or "like" themselves
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a condition in which children have difficulty getting organized, focusing on a task, or thinking before acting
asthma a chronic respiratory condition that causes sudden attacks of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
allergy an exaggerated immune response or reaction to substances that are generally not harmful
Type 1 diabetes a type of diabetes where the immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas so that the pancreas is unable to produce insulin
Type 2 diabetes a type of diabetes in which the body does not use insulin efficiently. Type 2 diabetes is brought on by a combination of genes, overweight, and inactivity
concrete operations the third stage of cognitive development in Piaget's theory when mental activities become more logical with respect to actual objects and materials
class inclusion a logical operation that recognizes that a class or group can be part of a larger group
seriation the ability to arrange items in a sequenced order according to particular properties
transitive inference a logical operation that builds on an understanding of seriation. It requires that two relations are combined to derive a third relation
horizontal decalage differences in performance on conceptually related Piagetian tasks. For example, children typically understand conservation of mass before they understand conservation of number
digit span task a research procedure in which people are asked to repeat in order a series of rapidly presented items
verbatim memory detailed memories of specific events
gist memory a generalized, rather than specific, memory of common occurrences
false memory a memory that is a distortion of an actual experience, or a confabulation of an imagined one
Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure an experimental task that demonstrates the creation of false memories; participants often recollect or recall words that they have not heard because they make associations based on conceptual commonalities
microgenetic analysis a research strategy that involves frequent, detailed observations of behavior
memory strategy mental or behavioral activities that can improve recall or recognition of material
multiple intelligences Gardner's theory that intelligence has at least eight distinct forms: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic
triarchic theory of successful intelligence Sternberg's theory that intelligence is composed of three broad components: analytical abilities, creative abilities, and practical abilities
giftedness indicated by extraordinary creativity or performance in music, sports, or art, as well as traditional academic subjects
Down syndrome a condition in which children have a third copy of chromosome 21, one of the most common genetic causes of mental retardation
fragile X syndrome a condition in which children have a change in a single gene on the X chromosome, one of the most common genetic causes of mental retardation
root words vocabulary that must be learned, in contrast to derived and compound words that are built on root words
code switching changing speech to reflect the audience and situation
decoding applying knowledge of letter-sound relationships to read written words
comprehension understanding what is read or said
phonics emphasizes decoding in which readers match the printed alphabet to spoken sounds
whole language emphasizes comprehension and context, and inferring what words are from context
dyslexia a learning disability characterized by difficulties with word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding skills
inclusion placement of children with special needs in regular classrooms
English Language Learner child for whom English is a new language
achievement gap an observed disparity on educational measures between the performance of groups of students, especially social classes and ethnic disparities
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) a federal law that holds schools accountable for student performance and requires that states meet specific goals as measured by standardized achievement tests
high stakes test a test that results in serious sanctions if performance standards are not met
industry versus inferiority Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial development in which children develop a view of themselves as industrious versus inferior. Striving for recognition for their accomplishments, children develop skills and perform tasks that society values
instrumentality a personality trait that is characterized by a focus on action and accomplishments
expressivity a personality trait that is marked by a "caring" orientation, a focus on communication, collaboration, and conciliation
meta-analysis a statistical technique that combines the findings of multiple studies, taking into account the number of children in each of the individual studies and the magnitude of the effect reported in each one
preconventional moral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory, reasoning that focuses on the rewards and punishments associated with different courses of action, not societal standards
conventional moral reasoning In Kohlberg's theory, reasoning that focuses on receiving the approval of others and maintaining the social order
postconventional moral reasoning In Kohlberg's theory, reasoning guided by principles such as justice, fairness, and sanctity of life
hedonistic reasoning moral reasoning that focuses on one's own wishes and needs
altruism helping behaviors that are motivated by assistance as an end in itself, without expectation of reward or recognition
postmodern family a term that describes the variation in modern-day families - to parents and single parents, married and unmarried couples, and multi-generational households
transactional process an interplay between the child and his or her caretaking encironment in which each mutually influence the other over time
peer group status an indication of children's relative standing in the peer group as measured by peer nominations of acceptance and rejection
deviancy training a process in which clique members praise, encourage, model and reward one another for aggression or anti-social behaviors
bullying aggression by an individual that is repeatedly directed toward particular peers
self-care refers to children caring for themslves without adult supervision
media multitasking t
digital divide the gap between those families that have access to computers and related materials in their homes and those that do not
Created by: pinklrt98