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bkx PSY101 T5, KT

PSY-101 Test #5 Key Terms

TermDefinition
Psychological disorder deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms
Medical model the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
DSM-IV-TR the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Mood disorders psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Major depressive disorder a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Anxiety disorders psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Generalized anxiety disorder an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
Panic disorder an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Phobia an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Post-traumatic growth positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
Somatoform disorder psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause
Conversion disorder a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
Mania a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Bipolar disorder a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
Active listening empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
Unconditional positive regard a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance
Behavior therapy therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
Counterconditioning a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
Exposure therapies behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
Systematic desensitization a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias
Virtual reality exposure therapy an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears or phobias
Aversive conditioning a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
Token economy an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
Cognitive therapy therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Cognitive-behavior therapy a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Family therapy therapy that treats the family as a system; views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
Regression toward the mean the tendency for extremes or unusual scores to fall back (regress) towards their average
Meta-analysis a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
Evidence-based practice clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
Biomedical therapy prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system
Psychopharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior
Antipsychotic drugs drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
Tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
Antianxiety drugs drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Created by: bamkapowxo