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bkx PSY101 T4, KT

PSY-101 Test #4 Key Terms

TermDefinition
Attachment an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Critical period an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Imprinting the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
Basic trust according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
Self-concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, “Who am I?”
Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
Identity our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
Social identity the “we” aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to “Who am I?” that comes from our group memberships
Intimacy in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
Cross-sectional study a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Longitudinal study research in which the same people are restudied an retested over a long period of time
Crystallized intelligence our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
Fluid intelligence our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Social clock the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
Social psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution theory the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
Fundamental attribution error the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Attitude feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
Central route to persuasion occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Peripheral route to persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Role a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Cognitive dissonance theory the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
Normative social influence influences resulting form a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Informational social influence influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
Social facilitation the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Social loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Deindividuation the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group polarization the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
Groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Prejudice an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members; prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
Stereotype a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Discrimination unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
Ingroup “us” – people with whom we share a common identity
Outgroup “them” – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
Altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social exchange theory the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
Reciprocity norm an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
Social-responsibility norm an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
Psychological disorder deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
Attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms
Medical model the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
DSM-IV-TR the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Mood disorders psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
Major depressive disorder a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Created by: bamkapowxo