Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Rad protection revue

QuestionAnswer
penetrating electromagnetic waves emitted from an unstable isotope due to radioactive decay# gamma radiation
fast-moving electrons# beta - and beta +
proton particles have ____ times the ionizing potential of x or gamma ray photons# 2
when radiation ionizes water molecules (radiolysis) crating hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl free radicals, the results are _____ effects# indirect
when radiation energy directly severs chromosome or other macromolecules causing cell malformation and mutation, the results are _____ effects direct
Are radiation workers concerned with stochastic/nonthreshhold or nonstochastic/threshhold effects?# stochastic/nonthreshhold
unit of equivalent dose of any type of ionizing radiation that produces the same biological effect of 1 rad of radiation# radiation equivalent man (REM)
radiation reports for monitoring badges are given in what units of measurement?# mRem or mSv
average natural background radiation people in united states receive per year# 300 mRem/yr
radiation hazard signs must be posted in any area having radiation exceeding ______ per hour or ______ in 5 consecutive days# 5 mR, 100 mRem
equivalent dose to the reproductive organs that, if received by every human, would be expected to cause and identical gross genetic injury to the total population# genetic significant dose (GSD)
transference of x-ray energy as it passes through matter# absorption
process of decreasing the intensity of the radiation beam as it passes through matter# attenuation
What are the five basic interactions of radiation with matter?# 1. Classical/unmodified/coherent 2. photoelectric absorption with production of characteristic photon 3. compton interaction with production of modified scatter 4. pair production and annihilation reaction 5. photodisintegration
interaction in which photon interacts with entire atom causing electrons to vibrate. scatter of equal energy is emitted# classical or unmodified scatter
interaction in which the incident photon is completely absorbed knocking out an inner shell electron. this electron becomes a photoelectron/characteristic radiation# photoelectric effect and absorption
As atomic number of absorber increases, the probability that a photoelectric interaction will occur ________ significantly# increases
as energy of absorber ___________, probability of a photoelectric interaction decreases significantly# increases
_________ interaction provides the contrast on the film# photoelectric
interaction in which high energy photon is partially absorbed and knocks out outer shell electron. remaining incident photon energy is given off in another direction inn the form of scatter# compton or modified scatter
as atomic number of absorber increases, the probability of a compton interaction _______# stays the same (it doesn't depend on atomic number
as energy of absorber increases, probability of compton interaction ____________ # decreases
skin erythema dose is approx. ________ # 200 rads
dose below which an individual has a negligible chance of sustaining biological damage is called _________# threshhold dose
What are 8 short-term somatic/early/accute effects of radiation?# nausea, vomiting, fever, erythema, epilation, fatigue, intestinal disorders, blood disorders
what are 3 long-term/late/chronic somatic effects?# cancer, cateracts, embryological effects (birth disorders)
_________ effects are effects to future generations. # genetic
1 rad=_______ gray# .01
100 rads=_________ gray# 1
1 rem=________ seivert# .01
100cgy=_______ rads# 100
beta is ____ times more ionizing than x-ray# 0 (it ionizes at the same level)
alpha is ___ times more ionizing than x-ray# 20
neutrons are _____ times more ionizing than x-ray# around 10
measure of comparable whole body risk between two types of radiation is termed ________ # effective dose
low energy proton is ____ times more ionizing than x-ray# 2
gamma is ____ times more ionizing than x-ray# 0 (it ionizes at the same level)
organization which makes laws and standards for radiation protection# NCRP (national council on radiation protection and measurement)
organization which enforces laws regarding radiation protection# NRC (nuclear regulatory commission/dept. of energy)
Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968 required what mandates for x-ray equipment?# PBL, minimal permanent filtration to reduce soft x-rays, exposure reproducibility, manual back-up timer for AEC, pbl for fluoro,mas linearity
with ____________ dose,for each minute amt of dose absorbed, an effect is observed# non-threshhold
birth defects from irradiation of the unborn child in utero is known as ______. # teratogenesis
What was the name of the federal legislation which requires the establishing minimal standards for the accreditation of education programs and certification for persons who administer x-ray?# Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act of 1981
What are the two types of dose response curves?# threshold (nonstochastic or certainty effects) and non-threshold (stochastic or probabilistic)
somatic effect from irradiation that exhibits a threshold dose below which the effects do not normally occur and above which the severity of the biological damage increases as the dose increases# nonstochastic or certainty
__________ effects usually result from a large radiation exposure in a short period of time# nonstochastic/certainty
______ effects usually follow a non-linear/s-shaped dose response curve# nonstochastic
______ effects are usually seen in radiation therapy, not diagnostic radiology# nonstochastic
What are the early nonstochastic effects of radiation? leukopenia, epilation, erythema, acute radiation syndrome including GI and CNS complications and blood disorders
Leukopenia is what type of effect of radiation?# early nonstochastic
Erythema is what type of effect of radiation?# early nonstochastic
epilation is what type of effect of radiation?# early nonstochastic
accute radiation syndrom is what type of effect of radiation?# early nonstochastic
cataracts are what type of effect of radiation?# late nonstochastic
fibrosis is what type of effect of radiation?# late nonstochastic
necrosis is what type of effect of radiation?# late nonstochastic
sterility and reduced fertility are what type of effects of radiation?# late nonstochastic
atrophy is what type of effect of radiation?# late nonstochastic
smaller doses over longer periods of time are usually the cause of what type of effects of radiation?# stochastic
cancer is what type of effect of radiation?# stochastic
genetic alterations and gestational development problems are what type of effect of radiation?# stochastic
life-span shortening is what type of effect of radiation?# stochastic
current radiation protection philosophy is based on which type of dose response curve?# non-threshold (stochastic/probability)
what is the annual effective (whole body) dose limit for techs and students over the age of 18?# 5 rem/5000 mRem/50 msv
what is the cumulative effective (whole body) dose limit for techs and students over the age of 18?# 1 rem x age/1000 mrem x age/10 msv x age
What is the equivalent dose limit for techs and students over 18 for lens of the eye?# 15 rem/15000 mrem/150 msv
What is the equivalent dose limit for techs and students over 18 for skin, hands and feet?# 50 rem/50,000 mrem/500 msv
What is the annual effective dose limit to the general public with frequent exposure?# .1 rem/100 mrem/1 msv
What is the annual effective dose limit to the general public with infrequent exposure?# .5 rem/500 mrem/5 msv
What is the annual equivalent dose limit to the general public for the lens of the eye?# 1.5 rem/1500 mrem/15 msv
What is the annual equivalent dose limit to the general public for the skin, hands and eyes?# 5 rem/5000 mrem/50 msv
what is the annual effective (whole body) dose limit for students under the age of 18?# .1 rem (same as general public)
What is the 9-month equivalent dose limit for an embryo/fetus?# .5 rem/500 mrem/5 msv
What is the monthly equivalent dose limit for an embryo/fetus?# .05 rem/50 mrem/.5 msv
What is the annual natural background dose?# .1 rem(?)
What are the 5 radiation effects on dna?# 1. main chain scission, 2. cross-linking 3. point lesion or point mutation 4. rung breakage and separation of bases 5. loss of bases
What are the one break radiation effects on chromosomes?# terminal deletion, inversion, duplication, translocation
what are the two break radiation effects on chromosomes?# dicentric fragment, acentric fragment, ring chromosome
refers to large amt of radiation given in short period of time# acute radiation syndrome
what stage of acute radiation sickness occurs within hours of exposure and lasts a couple days; occurs at whole body exposures of 100 rads?# prodromal syndrome
what are the signs of prodromal syndrome?# nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and leukopenia
stage of acute rad. sickness that occurs after prodromal stage, and occurs with doses from 10-10,000 rads?# latent period
which stage of acute radiation sickness occurs with whole body exposures ranging from 200-1000 rads, and mean survival time is 10-60 days?# hematologic/hemopoietic syndrome
what are the signs of hematologic syndrome?# nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, leukopenia, anemia, hemorrhage, fever, dehydration
what stage of acute rad. sickness occurs w/ whole body exposures of 1000-5000 rad, with mean survival of 4-10 days?# gastrointestinal
what are the signs of gastrointestinal syndrome?# complications from hematologic syndrome, electrolyte imbalance, fatigue, lethargy
which stage of acute rad. sickness occurs at 5,000 rads or greater, and has survival time of 0-3 days?# central nervous syndrome
what are the signs of central nervous syndrome?# ataxia, shock, meningitis, vision difficulty, apnea, seizures, edema, unconsciousness, coma
______ rads can cause temporary sterility for up to 12 months, while _____ rads may cause permanent sterility# 200; 500-600
____ risk model predicts that a specific number of cancers will occur as a result of exposure# absolute
_____ risk model predicts that the number of cancers will increase as the natural incidence of cancer increases in the aging population# relative
radiation monitoring of occupational personnel is mandated when workers are likely to receive ____ % or more of the occupation dose limit (5 rem) per year# 10
occupational workers must wear a monitoring badge when there is a possibility of receiving ______mrem in one week# 25
name 7 personnel radiation monitoring devices# film badge, TLD collar badge, OSL dosimeter, TLD ring badge, pocket ionization chamber/dosimeter, personal audible dosimeter, portable air sampler
radiation detector used primarily to detect contamination and loss of radioactive sources is known as _____# gieger-muller counter
geiger-muller counter has ____ sensitivity, but _____ specificity in measurement# high, low
most reliable and accurate radiation measurement instrument for x and gamma radiation is called the ________# condenser r-meter
scintillation crystals have ______ sensitivity, and ______ specificity# high, low
skin surface must be _____ cm below the collimator# 15
anatomical parts measuring over ______ should be radiographed using a grid# 12
air gap requires a _____ in OID and SID of ____# 6-10,72
air gap is equivalent to ______ to 1 grid.# 7 or 8
mobile radiography and c-arm require at least ____ inches between source and patient's skin# 12
in fluoro, the source to table-top distance must be no less than ____ inches# 15
at a distance of 1 meter, the scatter radiation in fluoro equals about ____% of the useful beam's intensity# 10
1 ma approximates ____ rads of exposure# 2
in fluoro, typical skin entrance exposure dose is approx. ______ rads/min.# 3
max. skin entrance dose for fluoro units without ABS is _____ rads per ____# 5,minute
max. skin entrance dose for fluoro units w/ABS is ____ rads per _____# 10, minute
max. table-top exposure rate for normal fluoro is ____ R/min# 5
max. table-top exposure rate for high-dose fluoro is ____ R/min# 10
1 tvl= ____ hvl# 3.3
what is the inverse square formula?# intensity 1 over intensity 2=distance 2 squared over distance 1 squared
in fluoro, protective lead curtain must have min. of ____ mm lead equivalent# .25 (.5mm is better)
in fluoro, occupational workers must have gloves and aprons with min. of ____mm lead equivalent# .25 (.5 is recommended)
bucky slot cover must have ____mm lead equivalent# .25
fetal badge reading should be ___% less than collar badge reading# 10
radiation usage per week for a particular room is called _____# workload (W)
the portion of time that the radiation beam is directed at the primary barrier is called ______.# use factor (U)
exposure must be limited to ____mR/week in controlled areas# 100
exposure must be limited to ____mR/week in uncontrolled areas# 10
modification to the primary barrier taking into account the space beyond this barrier and how this space is used is called _______# occupancy factor (T)
Created by: sjb11