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AP Psych Reveiw

QuestionAnswer
Memory the process of encoding, retreving, and storing messages in the brain.
Information Processing Model process that includes sensory memory, working memory, encoding, long-term memory, and retrevial.
Levels of Processing Model the deeper information is encoded, the more likely we are to remember it.
sensory memory stores all sensory information for a short period of time.
George Sperling demonstrated how information is held in the sensory memory.
Iconic Memory a breif mental photograph of a scene.
Selective Attention attending to sensory information that is most important at the time (cocktail party effect).
Echoic Memory a brief memory for sounds.
Short Term Memory the working memory where sensory info stays for about 30 seconds.
Chunking a way of remembering lists by grouping information.
Mneumonic devices memory aids that help you to remember a list (ex: remembering the planets with an acronym).
Rehearsal remembering information by repeating it.
Long-Term Memory acts as the storage unit for memories.
Episodic Memory memories of specific events.
Semantic Memory general knowledge of the world.
Procedural Memory memories on how to do something such as tying your shoe.
Explicit Memories the conscious memories of facts or events.
implicit Memories unintentional memories you have of events.
Eidetic Memory photographic memory.
retrieval getting information out of long term memory so we can use it.
Recognition the process of matching a current event or fact with one already in our memory.
Recall retreiving a memory with an external cue
Primacy Effect the tendancy to remember the beginning of a list.
Recency Effect the tendancy to remember the end of a list.
Serial Position Effect the tendancy to remember things at the beginning and end of a list.
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon when you know you know the information but you cannot retreive it from your long term memory.
Semantic Network Theory our brain forms new memories by connecting their meaning and context with meanings already in memory.
Flashbulb Memories a vivid memory related to an event.
State Dependent Theory recalling specific events while in particular states of consiousness.
Mood-Congruent Theory recalling a memory when you are in the same mood as you were when the event happened.
Constructed Memory false recollection of a memory.
Relearning Effect after you have already learned information, it will take you shorter time to re-learn it.
Retroactive Interference learning new information interferes with remembering old information.
Proactive Interference old information interferes with learning new information.
Anterograde Amnesia inability to encode new memories.
Retrograde Amnesia inability to remember previous memories.
Long-Term Potention the more often we use a memory, strenghtens how quickly the neurons will fire.
Phonemes the smallest units of sounds used in language.
Morphemes the smallest unit of meaningful sound.
Syntax the order in which words are written.
Language Acquisition how we learn language; language is innate.
Linguistic Relativity Process language controls and limist our thinking (Whorf).
Prototypes what we think is the mosty typical example of a particular concept.
Images mental images we create in our minds.
Algorithm formula that garuntees the right answer.
Heuristic a shortcut to finding the right answer.
Representative Heuristic making a judgement based on previously learned information
Belief Bias the tendency to not change our beliefs even when presented with contradictory concepts.
Functional Fixedness inability to problem solve.
Conformation Bias tendency to pay attention to information that confirms our beliefs and ignore information that refutes it.
Convergent Thinking thinking pointed at one solution
Divergent Thinking thinking that searches for multiple answers.
Availabilty Heuristic judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind initialy. (ex: steroetyping a blonde to be dumb).
Trephining an early form of treatment where holes would be made in human skull's to let the harmful spirits escape.
Deinstitutionalization releasing people from mental insitutions due to the development of drugs.
Prevention if psychological problems can be treated before they become severe, then the suffering of the client as well as the cost will be reduced.
Psychotherapy treatment of mental disorders that involves talking to the therapist.
Frued's Psychoanalysis views the cause of disorders as unconscious conflicts, therefore the focus is identifying the underlying problem.
Free Association saying whatever comes to mind without thinking about it; meant to bring unconscious desires to light.
Dream Analysis the ego's defenses are down during sleep, so unconscious desires are brought to light.
Manifest Content the storyline of a dream.
Latent Content the underlying meaning of the dream.
Resistance resisting what thier psychologist says because the psychologist is right about his analysis; meant to protect the patient.
Transference transfering thoughts about a specific person onto the psychologist.
Insight Therapies highlights the importants of the clients gaining an understanding of their problems.
Humanistisc Therapies focus on helping people understand and accept themselves through self actualization.
Client-Centered Therapy developed by Carl Rogers; therapist provides unconditional positive regard for the patient letting them know that they understand.
Unconditional Positive Regard blanket acceptance and support for a person regardless of what the person says or does.
Acitve or Relfectve Listening actively clarifying the feeling of the client to let them know that the therapist is listening.
Gestalt Therapy emphasize the importance of the whole selves and to get in touch with body position and small actions.
Existential Therapies humanistic therapies that focus on helping clients achieve a subjectively meaningful perception of their lives; help the clients to see thier lives as worthwhile.
Behaviorist Therapies believe that all behavior is learned through classical, operant conditioning, and modeling.
Counterconditioning an unpleasant conditioned response is replaced with a pleasant one.
Systematic Desensitization the process of replacing the feelings of anxiety with relaxation.
Anxiety Hierarchy a rank-ordered list of what the client fear, starting with the least frighteneing and ending with the most frighteneing.
Flooding clients face thier fears all at once which therapists hope will irrationalaize their fears and the fear will be extinguished.
Aversive Conditioning pairs a habit a person wishes to break with an unpleasant stimulus.
Token Economy desired behaviors are identified and rewarded with tokens which can be exchanged for various objects or priveleges.
Cognitive Therapies focus on changing unhealthy thought patters.
Attributinal Style attributing behaviors to external locus' of control rather than internal.
Beck's Cognitive Therapy method involving clients trying to get clients to engage in puruits that will bein gthem success; often used in treatment of depression.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy combines cognitive and behavioral therapies.
Ellis' Ratikonal Emotive Behavior Therapy seek to expose and confront the dysfuntional thoughts of their clients.
Group THerapies less expensive and can be helpful bc you get all the groups insight.
Somatic Therapies therapies that produce bodily changes.
Psychopharmocology drug therapy.
Antipsychotic Drugs blocks the receptor sitse for dopamine; usually used in the treatment of schizophrenia such as thorazine of haldol.
Antidepressants drugs that block neurotransmitters.
Antianxietydrugs act by depressing the activity of the central nervous system, such as barbituates and Xanax and Valium.
Elecrtoconvulsive Therapys therapy in which an electrical current passes through both hemispheres of the brain, followed by a breif seizure; mainly used in the treatment of depresiion.
Psychosurgery procedures done as a last resort where part of the brain is destroyed to alter a person's behavior.
Psychiatrists medical doctors who can prescribe drugs.
Clinical Psychologists have phDs and deal with more severe mental issues.
Counseling Psychologists school psychologists, or marraige and family therapists.
Psychoanalysts people specifically trained in Freudian methods and they may not have medical degrees.
Created by: afurbs