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X-ray Production

Bushong (9th; Ch 8)

Energy of motion Kinetic energy
Approximately __% of the _______ energy of __________ electrons is converted into heat. 99; kinetic; projectile
______________ x-rays are emitted when an outer-shell ________ fills and inner-shell ____. Characteristic; electron; void
Only the _-characteristic x-rays of ________ are useful for imaging. K; tungsten
Characteristic ___________ is characteristic of the ______ _______. x-radiation; target element
travel from cathode to anode; constitute the x-ray tube current Projectile electrons
result from electron transitions into the K shell K x-rays
Define Bremsstrahlung German for "slowed-down radiation"
______________ x-rays are produced when a projectile electron is ______ by the electrical field of a target atom nucleus. Bremsstrahlung; slowed
Formula for kinetic energy KE = ½ mv²
Atomic number of Tungsten 74
At 100 kVp, ___ of the x-ray beam is ______________ and ___ is ______________. 15%, characteristic; 85%, Bremsstrahlung
Binding energy unit Kiloelectron volt (keV)
Binding energy is also referred to as Effective energy of x-ray = quality of x-ray beam
In the __________ range, most x-rays are ______________ ______. diagnostic; Bremsstrahlung x-rays
Symbol for Tungsten on the periodic table of elements W
Number of electrons on K shell 2
Binding energy of K-shell 69
Number of electrons on L shell 8
Binding energy of L-shell 12
A ________ ________ contains only specific values; often indicated on a bar graph. discreet spectrum
the range of types of values of any quantity, such as x-rays spectrum
A __________ ________ contains all possible values; indicated by a curve or line graph. continuous spectrum
demonstrates values of x-ray tube output: number of x-rays and x-ray energy. Used to understand how changes in voltage, kVp, mA & added filtration affect image quality. x-ray emission spectrum
______________ x-rays have precisely fixed (________) energies and form a ________ emission spectrum. Characteristic; discreet; discreet
______________ x-rays have a range of energies and form a __________ emission spectrum. Bremsstrahlung; continuous
Maximum x-ray ______ is associated with the minimum x-ray __________ (λmin). energy; wavelength
X-ray energy is _________ ____________ to its wavelength; as x-ray wavelength increases, x-ray energy _________. inversely proportional; decreases
a process of calculating the total number of x-rays emitted from an x-ray tube by adding together the number of x-rays emitted at each energy over the entire spectrum. integration
x-ray intensity = x-ray quantity
A change in mA or mAs results in a proportional change in the _________ of the x-ray ________ ________ at all energies. amplitude; emission spectrum
4 principal factors of the _____ of an x-ray emission spectrum: 1) low-energy produces ___-______ x-rays, 2) low energy= lose energy by ___________ 3) low-energy x-rays: target __________ 4) __________- removes low-energy x-rays shape 1) low-energy 2) interaction 3) absorption 4) filtration
A change in kVp affects both the _________ and the ________ of the x-ray emission ________. amplitude; position; spectrum
A change in kVp has __ ______ on the position of the ________ x-ray emission spectrum. no effect; discrete
In the diagnostic range, a ___ increase in kVp is = to doubling the ___. 15%; mAs.
The result of added __________ is an ________ in the average energy of the x-ray beam with an accompanying _________ in x-ray quantity. filtration; increase; decrease
refers to adding filtration and its effect of the relative increase in average energy of the x-ray beam hardening
Increasing target ______ ______ enhances the __________ of x-ray production and the ______ of characteristic and bremsstrahlung x-rays. atomic number; efficiency; energy
Atomic number of Gold 79
Atomic number of Molybdenum 42
Atomic number of Rhodium 45
Target elements used for mammography Molybdenum & rhodium
Because of reduced ______, operation with _____-phase power or ___ _________ is = to an approximate 12% ________ in kVp, or almost a doubling of mAs over ______-phase power. ripple; 3; high frequency; increase; single
Diagnostic range 20- 150 kVp
Created by: GWCCRad12