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Davidson-Psych #2

Exam on Learning, Memory, Intelligence & Motivation

• Classical conditioning Learning what signals events – neural stimuli come to elicit a response originally created by another stimulus
• Components of Classical Conditioning Pavlov: neural stimulus + unconditioned response = conditioned response
• Phases of classical conditioning 1) Acquisition, 2) Extinction, 3) Spontaneous Recovery, 4) Savings
Define Acquisition Association of events 1. Timing – right before is best 2. Consistency 3. Stimulus generalization and discrimination
Define Extinction conditioned response decreases when conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus
Define Spontaneous Recovery passage of time extinction can partially renew the conditioned reflex
Define Savings relearn the conditioned response faster than the first time
Uses of Classical Conditionung Enuresis (bed wetting), Aversion therapy, Advertising Counter-conditioning
Thorndike's law of effect “behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by negative actions are weakened”
Operant Conditioning changing likelihood that behavior will reappear
Components of operant conditioning Negative & Positive Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement adding something good after a response increases the likelihood that the response will occur again
Negative Reinforcement and punishment taking away something bad after the response increases likelihood that the response will occur again
Shaping and how to do it reinforcing exact segments of behavior; the “differential reinforcement of successive approximations”; introduced by B. F. Skinner; more specific aspect of broader operant conditioning techniques⇒ “pointing” behavior in a certain direction, bit by bit
Problems with punishment in operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment weakens and decreases the likelihood of desired behavior being repeated
Schedules of reinforcement (including relevant strengths and weaknesses) Fixed Ratio, Variable Ratio and Variable Interval
Fixed Ratio Reinforcement delivered following a specified unit of time
Variable Ratio reinforcement delivered after an average number of responses
Variable interval reinforcement followed after an average unit of time
Similarities and differences between classical and operant conditioning Classical conditioning (CC) is involuntary whereas operant conditioning is voluntary, CC involves association of 2 events and operant conditioning is the association of behavior with an event, Operant Conditioning (OC) reinforcement not punishment
Observational learning Processes related to social learning
Observational Learning Attentional processes familiar attractive, similar, powerful people; salience and reasonable complexity
Observational Learning Retention processes imagery and verbal coding
Motor Repoductio self-explanatory
Vicarious Reinforcement the tendency to repeat behaviors that we see others rewarded for performing
Vicarious Punishment the tendency not to repeat behaviors that we see someone punished for performing
Mirror neurons frontal-lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
How mirror neurons relate to observational learning the brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy
Intrinsic Motivation the desire to perform an activity for its own sake
Extrinsic motivation The desire to perform an activity in order to attain an external result
Memory Encoding (General) The processing of memory into the memory system
Visual Encoding encoding of picture images
Acoustic Encoding encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
Semantic Encoding encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Storage The retention of memory over time
Retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage
Priming associating events with environments & so on (often unconscious)
Mood Congruence theory and The magical number 7 (plus or minus 2) George A. Miller- the idea that somewhere in our minds, there is a place where seven is a limit. We can hold seven things in there plus or minus 2 (each of us can hold one or two fewer under pressure)
Short-term Memory immediate memory, retention or release within 18 seconds (no later than this), a place to re-encode information if it is to be retained, where information is stored and assimilated (your ability to re-encode depends on wealth of general knowledge)
Working Memory a new understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory, it is a place to re-encode information
Long-term memory The relatively permanent and limitless store-house of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences.
Retroactive Interference things that happen after you hear something can affect you backwards in time, counteracting what you were trying to learn
Proactive Interference acting forward in time to prevent further retention of information (how similar items are to one another is very important)
Serial position effect & The primacy and recency effects our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Depth of processing (Types & what it is) Shallow versus Deep. Related to what you do with information in short-term memory- length, intensity & etc. affect where a memory will lie
Shallow processing Automatic vs. Effortful processing
Deep Processing (Rehearsal & Mnemonics) Chunking information, Creating Hierarchies, Imagery and Mnemonics
Context and state dependent memory Priming as a form of remembering- building on associations to re-formulate memories
Mood congruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad moods
Schemas and how they help memory Frederick Bartlett- structures that allow our brains to put our memories together cohesively (“chunking”)
The reconstructive nature of memory Bartlett also credited- people trying to re-call a story never entirely reproduce or re-live a story, rather it changes with each recalling based on your current state at the moment of recall
Misinformation effect telling someone about their perceptions in order to actually change an aspect of a memory
Intelligence a) the ability to learn from experience, and b) the ability to adapt to the surrounding environments
The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and how it is calculated Developed originally by Alfred Binet, then adopted by Lewis Terman into the Stanford-Binet intelligence test- defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (IQ = ma/ca x 100). Today’s average score is 100
Strengths of standardized intelligence tests reliability (as measured by re-tests and split-half tests) and objectivity (not having to rely on people to assess intelligence, but rather measuring it against a constant gradient)
Weaknesses of standardized intelligence tests may have content validity, but not predictive validity (success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict- correlation between the test scores and criterion behavior)
Stereotype threat a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Different theories of intelligence Spearman's G, Crystallized Intelligence, Gardner's Theory of multiple intelligences, Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Neural Efficiency
Define Spearman’s g General intelligence which underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Define Crystallized intelligence ability to apply knowledge you already have, such as vocab. Tests, general info tests, achievement tests. Associated with nurture
Define Fluid intelligence the ability to acquire new information, discover new relations, solve new problems using new procedures; More linked to nature; tends to deteriorate with age
Define Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences “The ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings” – Linguistic, Logical, Spatial, Musical, Bodily-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Naturalist
Sternberg's Triarchic theory of successful intelligence Theory based around an individual's abilities to adapt, select and shape their environments dependent on their own needs. Componential/Analytical Subtheory, Experiential/Creative Subtheory & Practical/Contextual Subtheory
Emotional intelligence the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions
Mental retardation: a) a significant subaverage intellectual functioning, b) limitations in 2 or more adaptive skill areas, c) manifestation before age 18
The relationship between “Big C” creativity and IQ Threshold model states that above average intelligence is needed to be truly, majorly creative
Divergent and convergent thinking intelligence tests largely do not measure creativity. They only test on concrete, pre-determined answers (convergent thinking) rather than creative approaches to problems with no pre-determined solutions (divergent thinking).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 1) Basic Human Needs. 2) Safety Needs. 3) Belongingness/Love. 4) Esteem Needs. 5) Self-Actualization Needs. 6) Self Transcendence
Exceptions to the order of needs A need does not have to be 100% satisfied before we turn to a higher need, Drive-reduction theory, Arousal theory,
Drive-reduction theory the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Drive-reduction motivation arises from homeostasis- organisms’ natural tendency to maintain a steady internal state.
Arousal theory stating that a level of arousal may push an organism to act beyond just maintaining homeostatis
Yerkes-Dodson law and its relation to task difficulty Different levels of arousal correlate directly to the difficulty and types of tasks. For instance, low arousal facilitates concentrated thinking, while high arousal stimulates motivation for stamina and perseverance in physical exertion
Achievement motivation a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard
Theories about Long Term Memory Rehearsal keeps things alive in short-term memory. Craik & Lockhart- amount of time held in STM directly correlates to what is passed ont
Chunking information making groups of related pieces of information to relate to one another and enable the mind to recall more than one at a time
Creating Hierarchies broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts
Imagery mental pictures, a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Created by: Danielapago
Popular Psychology sets




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