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Psychology ch.1-2

Introducing Psychology, Psychological Research & Methods

Physiological Having to do with an organism's physical needs
Cognitive Having to do with an organism's thinking and understanding
Psychology Scientific, systematic study of behaviors and mental processes
Hypothesis Assumption and/ or prediction about behavior or guess betweeen 2 variables that tested through scientific research
Scientific Method General approach to gathering information and answering questions so errors and biases are minimized
Wilhelm Wundt Setup of first psychology lab focused on structure of the mind
Phrenology Practice of examination of bumps on person's skulls to determine intellect and character
Dualism Concept that mind and body are seperate and distinct
Introspection Individual observes and analyzes his or her own mental experience
William James Father of psychology focused on functions and purposes of conscious mind and purposes of behaviors
Psychoanalyst Psychologist who studies unconcious motives and conflicts determine human behavior
Sigmund Freud A Psychoanalyst used technique called free association also dream analysis
Ivan Pavlov Physiologist explored develop of behavior, did experiment of the tunning fork
Free Association Freudian technique that examins the unconcious, patient instructed to say whatever comes to mind
Behaviorist Psychologist who learned and modified one's behavior based on responses to events in enviornment
Humanist Psychologist believes person has freedom in directing his/her future and achieving personal growth
Cognitivist Psychologist studies process, store, retrieve and information and how cognitive processes influence our behavior
Psychobiologist Psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes our bodies influence our behavior
Sociocultural Psychology Studying influence of cultural and ethnic same, different on behavior, social functioning
Clinical Psychologist Psychologist who diagnoses, treat people with emotional distrubances
Counseling Psychologist Psychologist usually helps people deal with problems of living
Psychiatry Branch of medecine that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders
Developmental Psychologist Psychologist studies emotional, cognitive, biological, personal and social changes that occur individual matures
Educational Psychologist Psychologist concerned with helping students learn
Community Psychologist Psychologist may work in a mental health or social welfare agency
Industrial / Organizational Psychologist Psychologist use psychological concepts to make work place a more satisfying enviornment for employees and managers
Enviornmental Psychologist Psychologist studies sensation perception, learning, motivation and emotion in carefully controlled labrotory conditions
Forensic Psychologist Deals with diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, testimony regarding law/criminal behavior
Health Psychologist Studies interaction between physical/ psychological health factors
Experimental Psychologist Studies sensation, perception, learning motivation, emotional in carefully controlled laboratory conditions
Sample Small groups of subjects out of total number avaliable of target population, that researcher studies
Naturalistic Observation Research method which psychologist observe subject natural settings without manipulation or control on part of observer
Case Study In depth research method that involves an intensive investigation of one or more subjects
Survey Research method, information obtained by asking individual a fixed set of questions about their attitudes or behavior
Longitudinal Study Research method, data collected in over years then assessed and to see changes
Cross-Sectional Study Data collected of participants of different ages (compare & find conclusions)
Correlation Statistic that describes direction/strength of relationship between 2 sets of variables
Variable in experiment, any factor that is measured or controlled and capable of change
Experimental Group Group of participants to which an independent variable is applied
Control Group In experiment group of participants is treated in same way as experimental group except that experimental treatment is not applied
Self-fulfilling Prophecy Belief, prediction or expectation that operates to bring about its own fulfillment
Single-blind Experiment Experiment which participants are unaware of which participants recieved treatment
Double-blinded Experiment Experiment which neither the experimenter nor particapants know which participants recieve treatment
Stanley Milgram Determine whether participants would admin. painful shocks to others merely because an authority had instructed to do so.
Placebo Effect Change in participants illness/ behavior that results from a belief that treatment will have an effect rather than from the actual treatment
Created by: clo411