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pulm1 breath sounds

Normal tracheal and bronchial sounds These are loud and tubular sounds with a high-pitch noted during inspiration and expiration, pausing between the two components.
Vesicular breath sounds These are normal, soft, and low-pitched sounds heard over the more distal airways primarily during inspiration. During expiration the soft sound is diminished and only heard during the beginning of expiration.
Abnormal breath sounds These are sounds that are heard outside of their normal location or phase of respiration.
Adventitous breath sounds These are abnormal breath sounds heard using a stethoscope with inspiration and/or expiration. These sounds can be continuous or discontinuous sounds.
Wheeze These are continuous adventitious breath sounds that are high-pitched and varying in duration. These are usually heard during expiration, but may also be present on inspiration.
Wheezes are typically a sign of airway obstruction from retained secretions or due to bronchoconstriction or bronchospasm with quality similar to whistling. Wheezes found with inspiration occur with movement of air through secretions.
Rhonchi These are continuous adventitious breath sounds that are low-pitched and occur with both inspiration and expiration. Rhonchi are associated with an obstructive process of the larger or more central airways with quality similar to snoring.
Stridor continuous adventitious sound, very high-pitched wheeze that can be heard with inspiration and expiration also indicates upper airway obstruction. stridor that is heard without a stethoscope is an emergency.
Crackle (formerly rales) A discontinuous adventitious sound heard with a stethoscope that “bubbles” or “pops.” Crackles typically represent the movement of fluid or secretions during inspiration (wet crackles) or occur from the sudden opening of closed airways (dry crackles).
Crackle (formerly rales) if they are during the latter half of inspiration they represent atelectasis, fibrosis, pulmonary edema or pleural effusion. Crackles secondary to the movement of secretions are usually low-pitched and can be heard during inspiration and/or expiration.
Bronchial breath sounds These sounds are abnormal breath sounds when heard in locations that vesicular sounds are normally present. Pneumonia may produce these sounds.
Decreased or diminished sounds A less audible sound may indicate severe congestion, emphysema or hypoventilation.
Absent breath sounds may indicate pneumothorax or lung collapse.
Created by: micah10
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