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final-review 17

neuro20 terms

QuestionAnswer
Agnosia: The inability to interpret information.
Agraphesthesia: The inability to recognize symbols, letters or numbers traced on the skin.
Agraphia: The inability to write due to a lesion within the brain.
Akinesia: The inability to initiate movement; commonly seen in patients with Parkinsonʼs disease.
Aphasia: The inability to communicate or comprehend due to damage to specific areas of the brain.
Apraxia: The inability to perform purposeful learned movements, although there is no sensory or motor impairment.
Astereognosis: The inability to recognize objects by sense of touch.
Ataxia: The inability to perform coordinated movements.
Athetosis: A condition that presents with involuntary movements combined with instability of posture. Peripheral movements occur without central stability.
Bradykinesia: Movement that is very slow.
Chorea: Movements that are sudden, random, and involuntary.
Clonus: A characteristic of an upper motor neuron lesion; involuntary alternating spasmodic contraction of a muscle precipitated by a quick stretch reflex.
Constructional apraxia: The inability to reproduce geometric figures and designs. This person is visually unable to analyze how to perform a task.
Decerebrate rigidity: A characteristic of a corticospinal lesion at the level of the brainstem that results in extension of the trunk and all extremities.
Decorticate rigidity: A characteristic of a corticospinal lesion at the level of the diencephalon where the trunk and lower extremities are positioned in extension and the upper extremities are positioned in flexion.
Diplopia: Double vision
Dysarthria: Slurred and impaired speech due to a motor deficit of the tongue or other muscles essential for speech.
Dysdiadochokinesia: The inability to perform rapidly alternating movements.
Dysmetria: The inability to control the range of a movement and the force of muscular activity.
Dysphagia: The inability to properly swallow.
Dystonia: Closely related to athetosis, however, there is larger axial muscle involvement rather than appendicular muscles.
Emotional lability: A characteristic of a right hemisphere infarct where there is an inability to control emotions and outbursts of laughing or crying that are inconsistent with the situation.
Hemiballism: An involuntary and violent movement of a large body part.
Hemiparesis: A condition of weakness on one side of the body.
Hemiplegia: A condition of paralysis on one side of the body.
Homonymous hemianopsia: The loss of the right or left half of the field of vision in both eyes.
Ideational apraxia: The inability to formulate an initial motor plan and sequence tasks where the proprioceptive input necessary for movement is impaired.
Ideomotor apraxia: A condition where a person plans a movement or task, but cannot volitionally perform it. Automatic movement may occur, however, a person cannot impose additional movement on command.
Kinesthesia: The ability to perceive the direction and extent of movement of a joint or body part.
Perseveration: The state of repeatedly performing the same segment of a task or repeatedly saying the same word/phrase without purpose.
Proprioception: The ability to perceive the static position of a joint or body part.
Rigidity: A state of severe hypertonicity where a sustained muscle contraction does not allow for any movement at a specified joint.
Synergy: A result of brain damage that presents with mass movement patterns that are primitive in nature and coupled with spasticity.
Unilateral neglect: The inability to interpret stimuli and events on the contralateral side of a hemispheric lesion. Left-sided neglect is most common with a lesion to the right inferior parietal or superior temporal lobes.
Created by: micah10