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neuro17 pharm

Antispasticity Agents Action: relaxation in a spastic muscle. Spasticity is an exaggerated stretch reflex of the muscle that can occur after injury to the CNS.
Spasticity is not a primary condition, but a secondary effect from CNS damage.
Antispasticity Agents bind selectively within the CNS or within the skeletal muscle cells to reduce spasticity.
Antispasticity Agents Indications: increased tone, spasticity, spinal cord injury, CVA, multiple sclerosis
Antispasticity Agents Side effects: drowsiness, confusion, headache, dizziness, generalized muscle weakness, hepatotoxicity (Dantrium), tolerance, dependence
Antispasticity Agents Implications for PT: Therapists must balance the need to decrease spastic muscles with the loss of function that a patient may experience with the reduction of hypertonicity.
Antispasticity Agents Once spasticity is reduced, therapists should focus on therapeutic techniques, facilitation, and strengthening to promote overall mobility. Sedation may also alter the scheduling of therapy to allow for maximal participation.
Muscle Relaxant Agents Action: promote relaxation in muscles that typically present with spasm that is a continuous, tonic contraction. Spasms typically occur secondary to a musculoskeletal or peripheral nerve injury rather than CNS injury.
Muscle Relaxant Agents Indications: muscle spasm
Muscle Relaxant Agents Side effects: (agent dependent) sedation, drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headache, tolerance, dependence
Muscle Relaxant Agents Implications for PT: side effects, however, maximize the potential for relaxation through therapeutic techniques and the use of modalities during treatment. Prevention of reinjury through stretching, posture retraining, and education
Antiepileptic Agents Action: reduce or eliminate seizure activity within the brain. These agents attempt to inhibit the firing of certain cerebral neurons through various effects on the CNS.
Antiepileptic Agents Action Chemical classifications include: barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carboxylic acids, hydantoins, iminostilbenes, succinimides, and second generation drugs.
Antiepileptic Agents Action Indications: seizure activity (partial seizures, generalized seizures, unclassified seizures)
Antiepileptic Agents Action Side effects: (agent dependent) ataxia, skin issues, behavioral changes, gastrointestinal distress, headache, blurred vision, weight gain
Antiepileptic Agents Action Implications for PT: Therapists must have adequate knowledge of established protocols for responding to a seizure as well as potential side effects of antiepileptic medications.
Patients with epilepsy may show greater sensitivity to environmental surroundings such as light or noise level.
Dopamine Replacement Agents Action: assist to relieve the symptoms of Parkinsonʼs disease secondary to the decrease in endogenous dopamine. These agents are able to cross the blood-brain barrier through active transport and transform to dopamine within the brain.
Dopamine Replacement Agents Indications: Parkinsonʼs disease, Parkinsonism
Dopamine Replacement Agents Side effects: (levadopa) arrhythmias, gastrointestinal distress, orthostatic hypotension, dyskinesias, mood and behavioral changes, tolerance
Dopamine Replacement Agents Implications for PT: Therapists and patients attain maximal benefit from scheduling therapy one hour after administration of levadopa. understand the debilitating effects of drug holidays and should monitor the patientʼs blood pressure frequently orthostatic hypotension.
Created by: micah10