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final-review 11

neuro6 CVA

Primary Risk Factors CVA Hypertension,Heart disease, Diabetes mellitus, Cigarette smoking, Transient ischemic attacks
Secondary Risk Factors CVA Obesity High ,cholesterol ,Behaviors related to hypertension, Physical inactivity, Increased alcohol consumption
Completed Stroke A CVA that presents with total neurological deficits at the onset.
Stroke in Evolution usually caused by a thrombus that gradually progresses. Total neurological deficits are not seen for one to two days after onset.
Ischemic Stroke Once there is a loss of perfusion to a portion of the brain (within just seconds) there is a central area of irreversible infarction surrounded by an area of potential ischemia.
Embolic CVA Associated with cardiovascular disease, an embolus may be a solid, liquid or gas, and can originate in any part of the body.
The embolus travels . through the bloodstream to the cerebral arteries causing occlusion of a blood vessel and a resultant infarct
The middle cerebral artery is most commonly affected by an embolus from the internal carotid arteries.
Due to the sudden onset of occlusion, tissues distal to the infarct can sustain higher permanent damage than those of thrombotic infarcts.
An embolic CVA occurs rapidly with no warning, and often presents with a headache.
Common cardiac disorders that can lead to embolism include valvular disease (i.e., rheumatic mitral stenosis), ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias (i.e., atrial fibrillation), patent foramen ovale, cardiac tumors, and post cardiac catheterization.
Thrombotic CVA An atherosclerotic plaque develops in an artery and eventually occludes the artery or a branching artery causing an infarct.
Thrombotic CVA is extremely variable in onset where symptoms can appear in minutes or over several days.
A thrombotic CVA . usually occurs during sleep or upon awakening, after a myocardial infarction or post-surgical procedure
Hemorrhagic CVA An abnormal bleeding in the brain due to a rupture in blood supply. The infarct is due to disruption of oxygen to an area of the brain and compression from the accumulation of blood.
Hypertension is usually a precipitating factor causing rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.
Trauma can also precipitate hemorrhage and subsequent CVA.
Characteristics of a hemmoragic CVA include . severe headache, vomiting, high blood pressure, and abrupt onset of symptoms
Hemorrhage usually occurs during the day with symptoms evolving in relation to the speed of the bleed.
Approximately 50% of deaths from hemorrhagic stroke occur within the first 48 hours.
transient ischemic attack is usually linked to an atherosclerotic thrombosis. There is a temporary interruption of blood supply to an area. T
he effects of TIA may be similar to a CVA, but symptoms resolve quickly. A TIA most often occurs in the carotid and vertebrobasilar arteries and may indicate future CVA.
Created by: micah10



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