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neuro5 brain parts

The brainstem is located: in front of the cerebellum and is connected to the spinal cord.
Brain stem consists of three structures: the midbrain (mesencephalon), pons, and medulla oblongata.
The brainstem works as a relay station, sending messages between various parts of the body and the cerebral cortex.
Many of the primitive functions that are essential for survival are located within the brainstem.
The reticular activating system is found within the midbrain, pons, medulla, and a portion of the thalamus.
Severe damage to the brainstem will often result in “brain death” secondary to the key functions that are controlled within this area.
The majority of cranial nerves originate in the brainstem.
The diencephalon is located beneath the cerebral hemispheres and contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, optic tracts and optic chiasm, infundibulum, posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland, limbic system, and third ventricle.
The thalamus is a relay station for a majority of information that goes to the cerebral cortex. It coordinates sensory perception and movement with other parts of the brain and spinal cord that also have a role in sensation and movement.
The hypothalamus receives information from the autonomic nervous system and assists in regulating hormones.
hypothalamus controls functions such as eating, sexual behavior, and sleeping. It regulates body temperature, the adrenal glands, the pituitary gland, and many other vital activities.
The cerebellum is located at the posterior of the brain below the occipital lobes and is separated from the cerebrum by the tentorium.
The cerebellum is responsible for . fine tuning of movement and assists with maintaining posture and balance by controlling muscle tone and positioning of the limbs in space
The cerebellum controls the ability to perform rapid alternating movements.
The fourth ventricle lies anterior to the cerebellum.
Damage to one side of the cerebellum will produce impairment to the same side of the body.
The cerebrum, which encompasses the major portion of the brain, is divided into the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
The two hemispheres are joined at the bottom by the corpus callosum which relays information from one side of the brain to the other.
The surface of the cerebrum contains billions of neurons and glia that form the cerebral cortex.
The outer surface of the cerebrum is termed grey matter and below that is the white matter.
Sulci and fissures demark certain areas of the brain called lobes.
Each lobe is responsible for different functions.
The frontal lobe is responsible for voluntary movement (primary motor cortex/precentral gyrus), intellect, orientation, Broca's area, speech, behavior, concentration, personality, temper.
The parietal lobe receives information from other areas of the brain regarding hearing, vision, motor, sensory, memory; provides meaning for objects
The right side of the temporal lobe is responsible for visual memory and assists in recognition of objects and people's faces.
The left side temporal lobe is responsible for verbal and general memory and assists with understanding language.
The rear of the temporal lobe enables humans to interpret other people's emotions and reactions.
The occipital lobe receives and processes visual information, colors, and shapes.
Meninges describe . the three layers of connective tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. There are blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the meninges
dura mater: outer most meninge, has four folds, lines the periosteum of the skull and protects the brain
arachnoid: the middle meninge, the arachnoid surrounds the brain in a loose manner
pia mater: inner most meninge, covers the contours of the brain, forms the choroid plexus in the ventricular system
epidural space: space occupied between the skull and outer dura mater
subdural space: space occupied between the dura and arachnoid meninges
subarachnoid space: space occupied between the arachnoid and pia mater that contains CSF and the circulatory system for the cerebral cortex
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear fluid-like substance found within the brain that cushions the brain and spinal cord from injury.
CSF is produced and found within the ventricles of the brain.
The choroid plexus within each ventricle is responsible for CSF production.
The ventricular system is designed to protect and nourish the brain; comprised of four ventricles and multiple foramen that allow the passage of CSF.
The basal ganglia consist of five major nuclei located in the cerebrum and are responsible for cognition, voluntary movement, and control of motor responses.
Created by: micah10



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