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final-review 10

neuro2 balance

balance: “a state of physical equilibrium,” “maintenance and control of the center of gravity,” and “achieving and maintaining an upright posture.”
All definitions of balance assume integrated somatosensory, visual, and vestibular information within the central nervous system.
Somatosensory receptors are located in the joints, muscles, ligaments, and skin to provide proprioceptive information regarding length, tension, pressure, pain, and joint position.
Proprioceptive and tactile input from the ankles, knees, hips, neck, and eye musculature provide balance information to the brain.
Visual receptors allow for perceptual acuity regarding verticality, motion of objects and self, environmental orientation, postural sway, and movements of the head/neck.
visual input: . Children rely heavily on this system for maintenance of balance
The vestibular system provides the central nervous system with feedback regarding the position and movement of the head with relation to gravity.
The labyrinth ( which lies within the otic capsule of the temporal bone) consists of three semicircular canals filled with endolymph and two otolith organs.
Semicircular canals respond to the movement of fluid with head motion. Otoliths measure the effects of gravity and movement with regard to acceleration/deceleration.
Balance Reactions Ankle strategy: The ankle strategy is the first strategy to be elicited by a small range and slow velocity perturbation when the feet are on the ground.
Balance Reactions Ankle strategy Muscle groups contract in a distal to proximal fashion to control postural sway from the ankle joint.
Balance Reactions Hip strategy: The hip strategy is elicited by a greater force, challenge or perturbation through the pelvis and hips.
Balance Reactions Hip strategy The hips will move (in the opposite direction from the head) in order to maintain balance. Muscle groups contract in a proximal to distal fashion in order to counteract the loss of balance.
Suspensory strategy: The suspensory strategy is used to lower the center of gravity during standing or ambulation in order to better control the center of gravity.
Examples of Suspensory strategy knee flexion, crouching or squatting. This strategy is often used when both mobility and stability are required during a task (such as surfing).
Stepping strategy: is elicited through unexpected challenges or perturbations during static standing or when the perturbation produces such a movement that the center of gravity is beyond the base of support.
Stepping strategy The lower extremities step and/or upper extremities reach to regain a new base of support.
Created by: micah10