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Kinesiology Practice

KH Exam !

Types Of Joints Synarthrodial Amphiarthrodial Diarthrodial
Synarthrodial Joint Essentially no movement and has fibrous sutures; sutures of skull
Amphiarthrosis Joint Small amount of movement and is cartilaginous; symphysis pubis, intervertebral discs
Diarthrodial Joint Freely moveable joint and has joint; articular cartilage gets nutrients from synovial fluid; 2 articular bones; has joint cavity; Example: Hip,knee,shoulder,elbow
Uniaxial Joint One Axis; 1DF; Hinge for flex/ext;elbow and knee; Pivot for rotation in transverse plane; Axis C1 & C2, proximal radial/ulna jt
Biaxial Joint Two Axis; 2DF; Condyloid flex/ext (Wrist) allows some abd/add (MP jts) radia/ulnar dev; Saddle joint concave surface meeting metacarpal of thumb flex/ext;abd/add ex. Thumb CMC
Triaxial Joint multiaxial joint; 3DF motion occurs in all three axes; joint allows more motion; the ball and socket joint; 3 degrees of freedom; hip/shoulder IR/ER/flex/ext/add/abd
Saggital Plane Passes through the body from front to back and divides the body into right and left parts. Motions of this plane are flexion and extension. Axis Frontal
Frontal (coronal) Plane Passes through body from side to side and divides the body into front and back parts. Motions of this plane are abd/add, radial/ulnar deviation, and eversion/inversion.
Transverse (horizontal plane)Plane Passes through the body horizontally and divides the body into top and bottom parts. Motionsin this plane are medial/lateral rotation, supination/pronation, right/left rotation, and horizontal abd/ad. Axis Vertical/Longitundinal
Saggital Axis runs through a joint from front to back. This is on the frontal plane.
Frontal Axis runs through a joint from side to side. This is on the saggital plane.
Vertical/Longitudinal Axis The point that runs through a joint from top to bottom. This is on the transverse plane.
Joint Movement The axis is always perpendicular to the plane. Occurs in a plane and around an axis.
One Degree of Freedom Uniaxial Joint; Motion around one plane and one axis; Elbow Joint (saggital plane)
Two Degrees of Freedom Biaxial Joints; Motion around two planes; Wrist (sagittal and frontal planes)
Three Degrees of Freedom Triaxial Joints; Hip joint moves in all 3 planes.
Lever Rigid bar that can rotate about a fixed when point when a force is applied to overcome resistance.
Axis a fixed point at which movement of a lever occurs.
Force in the human body, this is usually muscular.
Resistance in human motion, this includes the force opposing the movement of the lever.
Open Kinetic Chain Distal segment moves freely; Example: 15 knee kicks, running, cybex, free weights
Closed Kinetic Chain Distal segment moves fixed; Example: push ups, lunges, squats, crutch walking, pushing a wheelchair, bench press, stair stepper
Osteokinematics Movement of the bone. This can be measured. Example: Flexion at the shoulder.
Arthorkinematics Movement of the joint. This cannot be measured. This is usually found between joints.
Accessory(Ancillary)Motion Normal inherent movement of a joint that cannot be reproduced voluntarily. It gives rise to 3D of freedom. Ex. You cannot physically rotate the knee on your own, the tibia has to rotate.
Rolling This is where different parts of one bone touches different points of another. Occur for normal joint function. Ex. A ball rolling across the floor.
Gliding (Sliding) Same point of one bone touches different points on another.
Spinning Motion that occurs along the longitudinal axis of a bone.
Rule of Convex on Concave When a convex bone moves on a concave bone you will get rolling and gliding in the opposite directions[(Humerus(convex)/glenoid(concave)].
Closed Pack Position The position is locked in. Maximum tension and maximum congruence of joint surfaces. End of Range.
Open (Loose) Pack Position The position has increased joint play, decreased congruency and joint capsule is on slack. The ligaments are not taut.
Types of Bones Long bone Short bone Flat bone Irregular bone Sesamoid bone
Long Bone length more than width (and tubular) ex. femur
Short bone dimensions large surface articulates with more than one bone example: carpals and tarsals
Flat bone broad and thin. examples: scapula, sternum, cranial bones (frontal, parietal)
Irregular Same composite as flat bone. Example: Vertebra, sacrum, coccyx, mandible, facial bones
Sesmoid a bone that forms within a tendon; example: patella and base of big toe
Structure of bone Diaphysis Epiphysis Metaphysis Endosteum Periosteum
Diaphysis shaft of long bone.
Epiphysis ends of bone.
Metaphysis lies between diaphysis and epiphysis. Functions to support the epiphysis.
Endosteum lines medulary canal, responsible for resorption contains the osteoclast that break down bone tissue.
Periosteum covering of the bone; very sensitive and provides a route for circulation (vascular) and nerve supply. Active in bone growth and repair
Types of Muscle (Parallel-fibered muscles) Strap Muscles Fusiform Muscles Rhomboidal Muscles Triangular Muscles
Types of Muscle (Oblique-fibered muscles) Unipennate muscles Bipennate muscles Multipennate muscles
Strap Muscles long and thin with fibers. Example: rectus abdominus, sternocleidomastoid
Fusiform Muscles Shaped like a spindle. Example: biceps
Rhomboidal Muscles four-sided, usually flat, with broad attachments at each end. Example: rhomboids
Triangular Muscles flat and fan shaped. Example: Pectoralis major
Bipennate Muscles looks like a common feather. Example: rectus femoris (quad)
Unipennate Muscles a series of short fibers. looks like one side of a feather. Example: tibialis posterior, semi membranous
Multipennate Muscles many tendons with oblique fibers. Example: deltoid and subscapularis
Active Insufficiency When a muscle reaches a point it cannot shorten any further. Refers to the agonist (the muscle that is contracting)
Passive Insufficiency When a muscle reaches a point it cannot be elongated any more without damage to the muscle fibers. Example: You cannot touch toes. Refers to the antagonist
Types of Muscle Contraction Isometric Isotonic Isokinetic
Isometric means same length, muscle contraction without joint motion; no change in muscle length
Isotonic muscle contraction with joint angle changes; change in muscle length. Example: Flexing and extending the knee.
Concentric contraction isotonic contraction causing the muscle to shorten and the muscle attachments to move closer together. Moves against gravity.
Eccentric contraction isotonic contraction causing the muscle to lenghten and the muscle attachments to move farther apart. Moves with gravity.
Isokinetic muscle contraction at a fixed velocity (speed) of movement with accommodating resistance. Must have machine.
Agonist (Prime Mover) A muscle or muscle group that causes the motion. In elbow flexion the agonist is the biceps muscle.
Antagonist a muscle that performs the opposite motion of the agonist. This works against agonist.In elbow flextion the antagonist is the triceps muscle.
Cocontraction when the agonist and the antagonist muscles work at the same time. Occurs when there is a need for accuracy. When a person learns a new task. Example: tight rope walking
Stabilizer (fixator) a muscle or muscle group that supports a part, or makes firm, a part that allows the agonist to work more efficiently. Example: Abdominal muscles act to keep the trunk straight, while the arms move the trunk up and down.
Synergist A muscle or muscle group that assists/works with another muscle to enhance a particular motion.
Neutralizer A muscle or muscle group that contracts to prevent unwanted motion. Example: Pronater teres resist when only want flexion.
First class lever axis between(A)is located between the force (F) and the resistance (R). Example: Playground seasaw, step up and step down Quad (F) and Weight (R)and (A) knee axis
Second class lever axis (A) at one end, resistance (R)in the middle (R), and the force (F)at the other end. Example: ball of foot (A) and weight(R), insertion of achilles (F) Example: Letting a weight down in your hand
Third class lever axis (A) at one end, force (F)in middle, and the resistance (R) at the other end. Example: Lifting a weight up your hand Elbow (A), biceps (F), weight (R)
Intrafusal fibers Sensory Fiber. That detect the amount and rate of change of length in a muscle;detect stretch in the muscle spindle. Once the muscle has contracted the spindle stops sending the message, no longer feeling the stretch.
Extrafusal fibers Motor Fiber. Skeletal muscle fibers that surround the intrafusal fibers. Contain actin and myosin for contraction. Innervated by efferent motor neurons. Generate tension by contracting, thereby allowing for skeletal movement.
Basal Ganglia the grey matter in the cerebrum. Initiates learned movement. No conscious thought needed. Control rhythmic movement, i.e. golf swing
Cerebellum modulates motor activity,does not initiate movement. controls equilibrium, has the ability to make adjustment to correct errors.
Sensory Neuron (Afferent) dendrite brings messages to the cell body. Is always on the posterior side. Messages travel into the posterior horn. Conducts toward.
Motor Neuron (Efferent) has a multipolar cell body and has many dendrites to receive info. Located on the anterior horn. Conducts away.
Muscle Spindle Specialized fibers that contract to prevent overstretching. Triggers the stretch reflex.
Bucket Handle Motion a change in medial-lateral chest diameter. refers to the ribs, bucket handle of rib cage, expand up and out and settle back down.
Pump Handle Motion a change in anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. Occurs at the sternum.
Functions Intervertebral Disc Absorb shock Transmit shock Maintain flexibility Provide 25% of spinal column height
Supraspinous Ligament from C7 to sacrum. Also called ligamentum Nuchae in C1-C7. Example: whiplash injury
Intertransverse Ligament Transverse process to transverse process. Connecting transverse process.
The Cervical Spine Body is small oval, transverse process foramen for vertebral artery; laterally.
The Thoracic Spine body diameter is intermediate, circle/heart shaped. Spinous process point downward, facets on body for rib articulation only. Transverse process for ribs.
The Lumbar Spine Body is large, big, heavy bulky. No foramen or articulation. Thick, point posteriorly.
Fast Twitch can sustain only short, anaerobic bursts of activity before muscle contraction becomes painful
Slow Twitch It can carry more oxygen and sustain aerobic activity. aerobic muscles
Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO) Relaxation to prolonged stretch. Help protect the tendon from excessive tension. (passive stretching that could cause rupture) Can be made to stretch by passive stretch.
Vertebral Joint Motions Flexion/Extension/Hyperextension/Lateral bending/Rotation
White Matter myelinated,main sensory area
Grey Matter unmyelinated contains the nerve cell bodies and location of synapse
Pelvic Tilt back pain, posterior tilt; anterior tilt lumbar angle decreases (pregnant and lean forward)
Pelvic Anterior Tilt occurs when the pelvis tilts foward, moving the ASIS anterior to the pubic symphysis.
Pelvic Posterior Tilt occurs when the pelvis tilts backward, moving the ASIS posterior to the pubic symphysis.
Robert Taylor Drinks Coffee Black Roots Trunk Divisions Cords Branches
Syndesmosis Small amount of twisting or stretching movement.
Synarthosis bones united by a thin sheath of fibrous tissue.
Concave on Convex Move in the same direction
Convex on Concave Move in the opposite direction
Aponoeurosis and Fascia broad tendinous sheath that may serve as an attachment for a muscle.
Hyaline Cartilage avascular; aneural and it's found at ends of bone.Provides for smooth surface and distributes over a large area.
Fibrocartilage Found in weight bearing joint and are good shock absorbers;
Functions of Skeletal System gives support and shape to n site for blood manufacturing site for storage of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium Protects vital organs
Ligaments connect bone to bone
tendons connect muscle to bone
bursa synovial membrane lined sac with fluid, reduces friction 2 surfaces
Closed Pack Postion of Joints Elbow at 90 degrees (closed pack) Hip full extension and medial rotation (closed pack) Knee (full extension and lateral rotation of tibia) Glenohumeral (Abduction and lateral rotation)
Congruent the joint surfaces have maximum contact with each other , are tightly compressed and are difficult to distract (separate)
Created by: qtpi1_02