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AP Psych: S-7

Sensation and Perception

transduction when signals are transformed into neural impulses
sensory adaptation decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation
sensory habituation our perception of sensations is partially die to how focused we are on them
cock tail party phenomenon ability to attend to only one voice among many
what is reflected off objects and gathered by the eye? light
what does color perception depend on? light intensity light wavelength
cornea protective covering that helps focus the light
pupil the center of the eye that lets light in
iris the muscle surrounding the pupil that controls the size of the pupil
lens focuses the light that enters the pupil
retina the screen on the back of the eye that contains rods and cones
what are cones responsible for? color
what do rods respond to? black and white
what do rods outnumber? cones
what contains the highest concentration of cones? fovea
ganglion cells make up the optic nerve that sends these impulses to a specific region in the thalamus
blind spot where the optic nerve leaves the retina
optic chasm the spot where the optic nerve crosses each other
what do feature detectors pick up? vertical lines, curves, motion, and many other features or images
trichromatic theory we have three types of cones: cones that detect the different colors blue, red, and green
opponent-process theory involves what? color after images and color blindness
dichromatic color blindness the difficulty seeing red and green or of tallow and blue
audition the sense of hearing
amplitude the height of the wave. determines the loudness of the sound
frequency the length of the waves. determines pitch
high pitched sounds have high frequencies and has waves that are densely packed together
low pitched sounds low frequencies. waves are spaced apart
pinna the outer ear
auditory canal ear canal
eardrum tympanic membrane which vibrates as the sound waves hit it
occicle bones hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), and stirrup (stapes)
oval window receives vibrations from the occicle bones and allows them to enter the cochlea
cochlea snail shaped structure filled with fluid
ciliea hair cells that line the cochlea and pick up vibrations
Organ of Corti neurons which are activated by movement of the hair cells
what does the movement of cilia create? transduction via the auditory nerve to the brain
Place theory hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea
Frequency theory we sense pitch because the hair cells fire at different rates in the cochlea
conduction deafness when something goes wrong with the system of conducting sound to the cochlea
nerve or sensorineural deafness when hair cells in the cochlea are damaged
when is our sense of touch activated? when we feel our skin indented, pierced, or experience a change in temperature
gate-control theory of pain some pain messages have higher priority than other
what do endorphins do? shut the "gate" of pain and help control it
taste occurs when chemicals are absorbed by taste buds on the tongue
four types of taste sweet, salty, sour, bitter
tightly packed taste buds improve the intensity of the taste
smell (olfaction) occurs when molecules settle in a mucous membrane
olfactory bulb gathers messages from the olfactory receptor cells and send this information to the brain
what does the olfactory bulb connect? the brain at the amygdala and then to the hippocampus which makes up the limbic system
vestibular sense sense of how our body is oriented
what gives us feedback about body orientation? three semicircular canals
kinesthetic sense sense of position and orientation of specific body parts
perception process of understanding and interpreting sensations
absolute threshold the smallest amount of stimulus we can detect 50% of the time
subliminal stimuli stimuli below our absolute threshold
difference threshold the smallest amount of change needed in a stimulus before we detect a change
Weber's law the change needed is proportional to the original intensity of the stimulus
what investigates the effects of the distractions and interference we experience while perceiving the world? signal detection theory
false positive when we think we perceive a stimulus that is not present
false negative when we do not perceive a stimulus that is present
top down processing when we perceive by filling in gaps in what we sense. expectations first then raw senses
schemata mental representations of how we expect the world to be
what can schemata create? a perceptual set which is a predisposition to perceiving something a certain way
what is the positive/negative to top down? faster. more prone to error
bottom up processing we use only the features of the object itself to build a complete perception raw perception then expectation
what is the negative/positive to bottom up? takes longer. more accurate
figure ground relationship what part of the visual image is the figure and what is part of the ground or background
what do gestalt rules point out? that we perceive images as groups
proximity objects closer together are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
similarity objects that are similar in appearance are more likely to be perceived as being in the same group
continuity objects that form a continuous form are more likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
closure objects that make up a recognizable image are likely to be perceived as belonging in the same group
constancy the ability to maintain a constant perception of an object despite changes
size constancy objects closer to our eyes will produce different shapes on our retinas
shape constancy objects viewed from different angles will produce different shapes on our retinas
brightness constancy we perceive objects as being a constant color even as the light reflecting off the object changes
stroboscopic effect images in a series of still pictures presented at a certain speed will appear to be moving
Phi phenomenon series of lightbulbs turned on and off at a particular rate will appear to be one moving light
autokinetic effect if a spot or light is projected steadily onto the same place on a wall of an otherwise dark room and people are asked to stare at it, they will report seeing it more
visual cliff experiment shows when human infants can perceive death. an infant old enough to crawl will not crawl across the visual cliff indicating depth perception
Monocular cues depth perception based on one eye
linear perspective parallel lines come together at a distance
relative size cue objects closer to a person will appear larger than those in the distance
interposition cue an object blocking the view of another will appear to be larger
texture gradient we see details in texture of objects close to us, not far away
shadowing shading part of a picture can imply where the light source is and thus imply depth and position of objects
binocular cues depth perception based on two eyes
retinal disparity each of our eyes sees any object from a slightly different angle. the brain gets both images
convergence as an object gets closer to our face, our eyes must move toward each other to keep focused on the object
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