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final-review 7

cardio 11

Hematocrit is the percentage of packed red blood cells in total blood volume.
Hematocrit is commonly used in the identification of abnormal states of hydration, polycythemia, and anemia.
A low hematocrit may result in a feeling of weakness, chills or dyspnea. A high hematocrit may result in an increased risk of thrombus.
Hemoglobin is the iron containing pigment of the red blood cells.
Hemoglobinʼs function to carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. This test is used to assess blood loss, anemia, and bone marrow suppression.
Low hemoglobin may indicate anemia or recent hemorrhage,
elevated hemoglobin suggests hemoconcentration caused by polycythemia or dehydration.
Partial thromboplastin time is most commonly used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy or to screen for selected bleeding disorders. The test examines all of the clotting factors of the intrinsic pathway with the exception of platelets.
Partial thromboplastin time is more sensitive than prothrombin time in detecting minor deficiencies.
Platelet count to the number of platelets per milliliter of blood.
Platelets play an important role in blood coagulation, homeostasis, and blood thrombus formation.
Low platelet counts . increase the risk of bruising and bleeding
Prothrombin time is most commonly used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy or to screen for selected bleeding disorders.
Prothrombin time test examines extrinsic coagulation factors V, VII, X, prothrombin, and fibrinogen.
White blood cell count number of white blood cells per milliliter of blood. used to identify infection, allergens, bone marrow integrity or the degree of immunosuppression.increase in white blood cell count hemorrhage, surgery, coronary occlusion or malignant growth.
Cholesterol Desirable range < 200 mg/dL
LDL cholesterol = 60 - 120 mg/dL
HDL cholesterol = 40 - 80 mg/dL
Partial pressure (PaO2) = 80 - 100 mm Hg
Saturation (SaO2) = 95 - 98%
pH - arterial blood = 7.35 - 7.45
Red Blood Cell Count (erythrocytes) number of RBCs per μl of blood
Red Blood Cell Count Value: male: 4.6 - 6.2 million/μl, female: 4.2 - 5.4 million/μl
White Blood Cell Count (leukocytes) number of WBCs per μl of blood
White Blood Cell Count Value: 4,500 - 11,000 /mm3
Plateles number of platelets per μl of blood
Plateles Value: 150,000 - 400,000 /mm3
Hematocrit percentage of packed RBCs in total blood volume
Hematocrit Value: male: 40 - 54 mL/dL, female: 37 - 47 mL/dL
Hemoglobin amount of hemoglobin in 100 ml of blood
Hemoglob Value: male: 14 - 18 gm/dL, female: 12 - 16 gm/dL
Inspiration: to breathe air into the lungs
Expiration: to breathe air out of the lungs
Normal respiration rates for Infants: 30 to 50 respirations per minute
Normal respiration rates for Adults: 12 to 18 respirations per minute
Values above 20 respirations or lower than 10 respirations per minute for an adult are considered abnormal.
Observe the patient at rest breathing for 60 seconds
RR Assess and document any accessory muscle the patientʼs respiration rate, rhythm of respiration, depth of respiration, and any deviation away from quiet respiration
An alternate method to measure respiration rate place your hand over the patientʼs upper thorax and observe and feel movement with each respiration
Voice Sounds Egophony, bronchophony, and whispering pectoriloquy are techniques to further assess lung pathology. If there is an abnormal transmission of sound it can further substantiate particular lung abnormalities.
Egophony: While auscultating lung segments the patient repeatedly says the letter “e.” If when auscultating the distal segments it sounds like “a,” fluid is expected in the air spaces or lung parenchyma.
Bronchophony: While auscultating lung segments throughout the chest the patient repeatedly says “99.” If the word is clearly audible in distal lung fields the test is positive for consolidation. less audible, softer or weaker sounding positive for hyperinflation.
Whispering pectoriloquy: While auscultating lung segments the patient repeatedly whispers words. The clearly audible and less audible words indicate the same findings as bronchophony testing.
High platelet counts increase the risk of thrombosis.
Created by: micah10