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final-review 5

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Common etiologies contributing to CHF include • arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, hypertension, valvular heart disease, myocarditis, unstable angina, renal failure, and severe anemia
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Left-sided heart failure is generally associated with signs of pulmonary venous congestion; right-sided heart failure is associated with signs of systemic venous congestion
CHF Diminished cardiac output causes • compensatory changes including an increase in blood volume, cardiac filling pressure, heart rate, and cardiac muscle mass
Cystic Fibrosis • Causes the exocrine glands to overproduce thick mucus which causes subsequent obstruction
Cystic Fibrosis Autosomal recessive genetic disorder • (both parents are carriers of the defective gene) located on the long arm of chromosome seven
• cystic fibrosis is A terminal disease however the median age of death has increased to 35 years of age due to early detection and comprehensive management
Emphysema: Results from a long history of chronic bronchitis, recurrent alveolar inflammation or from genetic predisposition of a congenital alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
Clinical presentation of Emphysema may include barrel chest appearance, increased subcostal angle, rounded shoulders secondary to tight pectorals, and rosy skin coloring
• Symptoms of emphysema worsen with the progression of the disease and include a persistent cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing especially with expiration, and an increased respiration rate
Myocardial infarction occurs when there is poor coronary artery perfusion, ischemia, and subsequent necrosis of the cardiac tissue usually due to thrombus, arterial blockage or atherosclerosis
Risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (MI) include patient or family history of heart disease, smoking, physical inactivity, stress, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and obesity
Clinical presentation of Myocardial Infarction (MI) may include deep pain or pressure in the substernal area with or without pain radiating to the jaw or into the left arm or the back
Peripheral Vascular Disease Characterized by narrowing of the lumen of blood vessels causing a reduction in circulation usually secondary to atherosclerosis
Risk factors of Peripheral Vascular Disease include phlebitis, injury or surgery, autoimmune disease, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, inactivity, hypertension, positive family history, increased age, and obesity
Patient education for Peripheral Vascular Disease is paramount regarding the disease process, limb protection, foot and skin care, and risk factor reduction (smoking cessation, avoid cold exposure)
Restrictive Lung Disease Classification of disorders caused by a pulmonary or extrapulmonary restriction that produces impairment in lung expansion and an abnormal reduction in pulmonary ventilation
Pulmonary restriction of the lungs can be caused by tumor, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, scarring within the lungs, pleural effusion, chest wall stiffness, structural abnormality, and respiratory muscle weakness
Restrictive Lung Disease Pathogenesis includes a decrease in lung and chest wall compliance, decrease in lung volumes, and an increase in the work of breathing
Created by: micah10