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final-review 4

cardio 7 pharm

Calcium Channel Blocker Agents Action: decrease the entry of calcium into vascular smooth muscle cells resulting in relaxation, vasodilation, and decreasing the heartʼs oxygen demand.
Calcium Channel Blocker Agents Indications: hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure
Calcium Channel Blocker Agents Side effects: dizziness, headache, peripheral edema
Calcium Channel Blocker Agents Implications for PT: Monitor patient closely when moving to an upright position due to dizziness and/or orthostatic hypotension. Observe the patient for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure such as worsening peripheral edema, dyspnea or weight gain.
Nitrate Agents Action: decrease ischemia through smooth muscle relaxation during preload and afterload.
Nitrate Agents Indications: angina pectoris
Nitrate Agents Side effects: headache, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension
Nitrate Agents Implications for PT: Patients must be educated to come to a standing position slowly to minimize the risk of orthostatic hypotension. Sublingual administration of nitroglycerin is the preferred method to treat an acute angina attack.
Diuretic Agents Action: target the kidneys to increase the excretion of sodium and urine. The decrease in blood pressure results from the reduction of plasma volume. Classifications include thiazide, loop, and potassium sparing agents.
Diuretic Agents Indications: hypertension, glaucoma, edema, heart failure, pulmonary edema, renal failure, hypercalcemia
Diuretic Agents Side effects: dehydration, electrolyte imbalance such as hyponatremia and hypokalemia, increased urination, increased low-density lipoproteins, arrhythmias
Diuretic Agents Implications for PT: Positioning changes can increase the risk of dizziness and adverse safety incidents due to decreased blood pressure. Promote frequent opportunities for hydration during active exercise. watch for electrolyte imbalance, weakness, cramping or hypokalemia.
Beta Blocker Agents (Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents) Action: decrease the heartʼs oxygen demand by decreasing heart rate and myocardial contractility. This occurs by beta blockers minimizing the effect of epinephrine (adrenaline).
Beta Blocker Agents (Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents) Indications: hypertension, arrhythmias, angina, glaucoma, migraines, anxiety
Beta Blocker Agents (Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents) Side effects: , depression, dizziness, weakness
Beta Blocker Agents (Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents) Implications for PT: Heart rate response to exercise will be diminished. Patients may have increased sensitivity to cold. Closely monitor patients during positional changes due to increased risk for orthostatic hypotension.
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Agents Action: decrease blood pressure and afterload by suppressing the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the bloodstream.
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Agents Indications: hypertension, congestive heart failure
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Agents Side effects: hypotension, headache, dizziness, dry cough, hyperkalemia
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Agents Implications for PT: Minimal implications for physical therapy, however, the risk of hypotension may be exaggerated by other antihypertensive medications used in combination with ACE inhibitors.
Anticoagulant Agents Action: Anticoagulant agents inhibit the synthesis and function of clotting factors.
Anticoagulant Agents Indications: deep vein thrombosis, thromboembolism, prophylactic use with high risk populations
Anticoagulant Agents Side effects: hemorrhage, increased risk of bleeding, gastrointestinal distress with oral medication
Anticoagulant Agents Implications for PT: A therapist must be careful to avoid all injury or bruising secondary to the risk of excessive bleeding. Patient education regarding common side effects is also indicated to protect the patient.
Antithrombotic (antiplatelet) Agents Action: Antithrombotic agents inhibit platelet aggregation and platelet-induced clotting. These agents inhibit synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes in order to prevent arterial thrombus formation.
Antithrombotic (antiplatelet) Agents Indications: prevent arterial thrombus formation, prevention of deep vein thrombosis
Antithrombotic (antiplatelet) Agents Side effects: hemorrhage, increased risk of bleeding, potential liver toxicity with the use of aspirin, hypotension, gastrointestinal distress
Antithrombotic (antiplatelet) Agents Implications for PT: A therapist must be careful to avoid all injury or bruising secondary to the risk of excessive bleeding. Patient education regarding common side effects is also indicated to protect the patient.
Thrombolytic Agents Action: facilitate clot dissolution through conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Plasmin breaks down clots and allows occluded vessels to reopen as with arterial or venous thrombosis.
Thrombolytic Agents Indications: dissolve arterial or venous thrombosis, acute myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke
Thrombolytic Agents Side effects: hemorrhage, specifically intracranial in certain populations, fever, allergic reaction
Thrombolytic Agents Implications for PT: These agents do not typically impact physical therapy since they are primarily used during acute circumstances. The benefit of thrombolytic agents results from a decrease in residual damage and enhanced healing due to the effects of the medication.
Antihyperlipidemia Agents Action: The majority of antihyperlipidemia agents inhibit enzymes required for cholesterol synthesis, breakdown low density lipoproteins (LDL), decrease triglycerides levels, and may increase high density lipoprotein levels (HDL).
Antihyperlipidemia Agents Indications: abnormally high concentration of lipids in the blood; atherosclerosis
Antihyperlipidemia Agents Side effects: gastrointestinal distress, drug-specific side effects including liver dysfunction, gallstones, pancreatitis, myopathies
Antihyperlipidemia Agents Implications for PT: Therapists should concentrate on providing patients with an exercise program since this should increase HDLs and maximize the effects of drug therapy.
Created by: micah10