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cardio6 cardiacfacts

QuestionAnswer
Cardiac Output: the amount of blood pumped out of the heart through the aorta each minute. adult male at rest normal is 5.6 L/min with women producing 10 to 20% less. during extensive exercise cardiac output to upwards of 25 L/min.
Cardiac output = . stroke volume (x) heart rate
Venous Return: Venous return is the amount of blood that comes from the veins to the right atrium each minute. This is similar in volume to the cardiac output.
Stroke Volume: Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected from the ventricles with each contraction. Factors that can influence stroke volume include “preload” (influenced by end-diastolic volume), “afterload,” and contractility.
Cardiac Index: The cardiac index is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute per square meter of body mass. Normal cardiac index ranges between 2.5 to 4.2 liters/min/meter2.
Blood Volume: Blood volume in an adult is usually 7-8% of their body weight. The blood is pumped through the body at 30 cm/sec with a total circulation time of 20 seconds.
Modifiable Factors: Cholesterol – greater than 200 mg/dL, Hypertension , Smoking, Atherogenic diet , Culture , Physical inactivity, Stress
Non-Modifiable Factors Cardiac Pathology • Age – risk increases with age • Sex – male > female (after menopause female equal to male) • Family history • Culture
Secondary Factors Cardiac Pathology • Alcohol consumption • Obesity • Coping with stress • Diabetes mellitus • Peripheral vascular disease
Symptoms of Cardiac Pathology • Chest pain • Shortness of breath • Cardiac arrhythmia (palpitation) • Fainting • Claudication • Cyanosis of lips and nailbeds • Fatigue • Edema
Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction • Severe chest pain • Chest heaviness • Radiating pain down one or both arms • Weakness • Nausea • Vomiting • Diaphoresis • Shortness of breath
diagnosis of MI • Abnormal ECG • Elevation in enzyme level–– Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) –– Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) –– Lactate dehydrogenase
Created by: micah10