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final-review 1

cardio 2pressuresgas

Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI)a test that measures arterial perfusion using a Doppler unit
arteries used in the Ankle-Brachial Index Blood pressures are measured in both upper extremities (using the brachial arteries) and lower extremities (using the dorsalis pedis or tibialis posterior artery). The patient is tested in the supine position for all measurements
Ankle-Brachial Index equation The highest lower extremity systolic pressure is divided by the brachial systolic pressure
ABI 1.0 Normal
ABI .5-.9 Arterial occlusion Impairment with wound healing Therapeutic exercise beneficial
ABI <.5 Severe arterial occlusion Exercise is unrealistic Poor to no wound healing
.ABI A ratio of .9 at rest or .85 after exercise indicates peripheral artery disease
Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)The study of blood gases is used as a tool to determine the effectiveness of alveolar ventilation. Values are expressed as the partial pressure of the gas. PaO2
the partial pressure of oxygen within the arterial system is normally 95-100 mm Hg. Supplemental oxygen is usually required for oxygen saturation rates less than 90%.
less than 70%. PaCO2 The body cannot carry out vital functions
the partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the arterial system is normally 35-45 mm Hg
The range for the acid-base balance or pH is 7.35-7.45
Changes in the PaCO2 directly affect the balance of pH in the body. Prolonged imbalance of the pH in either direction can affect the nervous system and in some cases cause convulsions or coma.
Hypercapnia: an increased amount of CO2 in the blood
Hyperkalemia, an increased amount of potassium in the blood.
Hypocapnia, a decreased amount of CO2 in the blood.
Hypoxemia, when the PaO2 is less than 80 mm Hg
pH 7.4
Normal Arterial Blood Gases Values PaCO2 40 mm Hg
Normal Arterial Blood Gases Values PaO2 97 mm Hg
Normal Arterial Blood Gases Values HCO3 24 mEq/L
Normal blood pressure Infants 60-90 / 30-55 mm Hg
Normal blood pressure Child 90-110 / 50-70 mm Hg
Normal blood pressure Adult 100-140 / 60-90 mm Hg
Systole: A period of contraction of the cardiac muscle.
Diastole: A period of relaxation of the cardiac muscle.
Atrial systole: atrial emptying of blood into the ventricles through the pressure gradient between the chambers as well as contraction of the cardiac muscle.
Atrial diastole: A period of atrial filling secondary to pressure from the venous circulation.
Ventricular systole: A period of ventricular contraction that causes a rapid ejection of blood.
Ventricular diastole: A period of ventricular filling secondary to the pressure gradient from the atria in combination with atrial contraction.
Hypertension: The American Heart Association defines hypertension as an adult blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg systolic pressure or greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg diastolic pressure.
Adult Prehypertension: 120-139 mm Hg systolic or 80-89 mm Hg diastolic
Adult hypertension Stage 1: 140-159 mm Hg systolic or 90-99 mm Hg diastolic
Adult hypertension Stage 2 > 160 mm Hg systolic or 100 mm Hg diastolic
Hypotension exists if: Systolic pressure < 100 mm Hg This condition is not dangerous, however, a patient may experience periods of dizziness especially when changing position.
Blood Pressure Measurement • Requires sphygmomanometer and stethoscope
Width of bladder for BP • should equal 40% of the circumference of the midpoint of the extremity (adult: 3-6 inches wide)
BP Values are usually slightly higher when • measured in the left upper extremity versus the right upper extremity; be consistent with which side the blood pressure is taken
BP directions • Palpate the radial pulse, inflate the cuff and note the reading when the pulse disappears • Release the cuff and wait 30-60 seconds • Inflate the cuff to 20 mm Hg above this reading (where the radial pulse disappears)
first Korotkoffʼs indicates the systolic pressure, the last audible sound indicates the diastolic pressure
• The thigh is an alternate site to obtain a blood pressure reading
Created by: micah10



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