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Res 140

Res 140 ex 3

QuestionAnswer
Correction of metabolic alkalosis may involve which of the following? D) I, II, and III I. Restoring normal fluid volume II. Administering acidifying agents III. Restoring normal K+ and Cl– levels
In order to eliminate the influence of PCO2 changes on plasma HCO3- concentrations, what additional measures of the metabolic component of acid-base balance can be used? D) Standard bicarbonate
Which organ system actually excretes H+ from the body? A) Kidneys
An ABG result shows the pH to be 7.56 and the HCO3- to be 23 mEq/L. Which of the following is the most likely disorder? D) Respiratory alkalosis
What compensates for a metabolic alkalosis? B) Hypoventilation
Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.43, PCO2 = 39 mm Hg, HCO3- = 25.1 mEq/L A) Acid-base status within normal limits.
What explains the lack of an increased anion gap seen in metabolic acidosis caused by HCO3- loss? A) For each HCO3- ion lost, a Cl- ion is reabsorbed by the kidney.
Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.08, PCO2 = 39 mm Hg, HCO3- = 11.8 mEq/L A) Acute metabolic acidosis
What affect does hyperventilation have on the closed buffer systems? B) Causes them to release more H+.
A patient has a confirmed metabolic acidosis with a normal PCO2. What inference can you draw from these findings? A) A ventilatory disorder must coexist.
What drives the bicarbonate buffer systems enormous ability to buffer acids? D) Ventilation continually removing CO2 from system.
Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.38, PCO2 = 21 mm Hg, HCO3- = 11.7 mEq/L B) Fully compensated metabolic acidosis
With partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, which of the following blood gas abnormalities would you expect to encounter? D) II, III, and IV II. Decreased HCO3- III. Decreased PCO2 IV. Increased pH
Fixed acids are produced primarily from the catabolism of which of the following? C) Proteins
A patient with a measured plasma HCO3- concentration of 24 mmol/L has an episode of acute hypoventilation, with the PCO2 rising from 40 to 70 mm Hg. What do you predict will happen acutely to the plasma HCO3- concentration? B) HCO3- will rise to about 27 to 28 mmol/L.
By comparison, how much fixed acid is produced in any given period compared to the volatile acid CO2? B) Less fixed than volatile.
Which of the following clinical findings would you expect in a fully compensated respiratory acidosis? I. elevated HCO3- III. pH between 7.35 and 7.39 I. elevated HCO3- III. pH between 7.35 and 7.39 I. elevated HCO3- III. pH between 7.35 and 7.39 A) I and III
What is the primary chemical event in respiratory acidosis? C) Increase in blood CO2 levels
A patient with Kussmaul's respirations most likely has: A) metabolic acidosis.
What is the treatment for severe metabolic acidosis? D) NaHCO3- infusion
If the blood PCO2 is high, the kidneys will do which of the following? A) Excrete more H+ and reabsorb more HCO3-
Which buffer system has the greatest capacity? A) Bicarbonate
Of what use is the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for a clinician? D) It allows validation of the reported values on a blood gas report.
Which of the following is FALSE about the relationship between chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate HCO3- in acid-base balance? D) Activation of the NH3 buffer system enhances Cl- gain and HCO3 loss.
What is the main compensatory mechanism for metabolic acidosis? B) Hyperventilation
The majority of the acid the body produces in a day is excreted through the lungs as CO2. What happens to the H+ ions? D) They bind to an OH-forming H2O.
What are some causes of metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap? II. Ketoacidosis III. Lactic acidosis IV. Renal failure C) II, III, and IV
Which of the following are components of the body's nonbicarbonate buffer system? I. Hemoglobin II. Plasma proteins III. Organic phosphates IV. Inorganic phosphates D) I, II, III, and IV
What is the limiting factor for H+ excretion in the renal tubules? C) Insufficient buffers
Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.35, PCO2 = 68 mm Hg, HCO3- = 34.3 mEq/L C) Fully compensated respiratory acidosis
In the face of uncompensated respiratory acidosis, which of the following blood gas abnormalities would you expect to encounter? I. Decreased pH III. Increased PCO2 B) I and III
What is a normal response of the body to a failure in one component of the acid–base regulatory mechanism? B) Compensation
Which of the following are potential causes of respiratory alkalosis? I. Anxiety III. Hypoxemia IV. Pain B) I, III, and IV
Which of the following is NOT a clinical sign of acute respiratory alkalosis? B) Depressed reflexes
The primary goal of acid-base homeostasis is to maintain which of the following? C) Normal pH
Compensation for respiratory acidosis occurs through which of the following? D) Increase in blood HCO3- levels
Which of the following accurately describes compensation for acid-base disorders? A) Kidneys take hours to days to compensate for respiratory disorders.
Primary metabolic alkalosis is associated with which of the following? A) Gain of buffer base
Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, determine the accuracy of the gas below. To be considered accurate, it must be within 0.03 pH unit. pH = 7.22, PCO2 = 49 mm Hg, HCO3- = 20 mEq/L B) This gas is accurate as the calculated pH is 7.23.
What is the primary buffer system for fixed acids? B) HCO3-
What condition or treatment could cause iatrogenic respiratory alkalosis? B) Mechanical hyperventilation
Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, determine the accuracy of the gas below. To be considered accurate, it must be within 0.03 pH unit. pH = 7.35, PCO2 = 77 mm Hg, HCO3- = 41 mEq/L A) This gas is completely accurate.
Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.01, PCO2 = 71 mm Hg, HCO3- = 16.3 mEq/L C) Combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis
What are the major mechanisms responsible for maintaining a stable pH despite massive CO2 production? I. Isohydric buffering III. Pulmonary ventilation D) I and III
A patient who has fully compensated respiratory acidosis becomes severely hypoxic. If her lungs are not too compromised, what might her gases now appear to be? B) Fully compensated metabolic alkalosis
The numerator of the Henderson-Hasselbalch (H-H) equation (HCO3-) relates to which of the following? C) Renal buffering and excretion of fixed acids.
Based on the following ABG results, what is the most likely acid-base diagnosis? pH = 7.43, PCO2 = 20 mm Hg, HCO3- = 12.6 mEq/L C) Fully compensated respiratory alkalosis
A patient has a bicarbonate concentration of 36 mEq and a PCO2 of 60 mm Hg. What is the approximate pH? C) 7.4
Correction of acute respiratory acidosis is accomplished by which of the following? B) Increasing alveolar ventilation
Which of the following systems is primarily responsible for the buffering of fixed acids? B) HCO3-
Created by: Cam1228