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Test 4:

Nat.test 4

James-Lange Theory 1880s; William James and Carl Lange; theory of emotion; stimuli in environment cause physiological change in bodies, then emotion comes; ex. I see a bear, which causes my heart to race, and then I become afraid
Cannon-Bard Theory 1920s; theory of emotion; processing emotions and bodily response occur simultaneously; ex. I see a bear, I feel afraid and my heart is racing
Two Factor Theory of Emotion Schacter & Singer (1962); cognitive theory; there are bodily emotions, but we use the emotions/information to tell us how to reaction in the situation; only when we think, recognize, do we experience the emotion
Sympathetic Nervous System The division of the autonomic nervous system that aroused the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic Nervous System The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Learned Helplessness when a person or an animal has learned to behave helplessly, even when the opportunity is restored for it to help itself by avoiding an unpleasant or harmful circumstance to which it has been subjected.
General Intelligence (G) A general intelligence factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Aptitude Test A test designed to predict a person's future performance in an as yet unlearned skill
Intelligence Test A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; it contains verbal and performance subtests
Robert Sternberg’s 3 Intelligences Analytical, Creative, Practical
Emotional Intelligence The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
Reliability The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Standardization Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested "standardization group"
Validity The Extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Content Validity The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
Predictive Validity The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
Repression In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories into consciousness
Neuroticism a big five factor trait; emotional stability vs instability
Projective Tests provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics; associated with the psychoanalytic theory
Humanistic personality perspective emphasizes self determination
External Locus of Control The perception that change or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
Internal Locus of Control The perception that one controls one's own fate
Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development
Trust vs Mistrust birth to 1 year) Infants learn that they can or cannot trust others to take care of their basic needs
Autonomy vs shame and doubt (1 to 2 years) Children learn to be self sufficient in many activities such as toilet training, walking, and exploring. If restrained too much they learn to doubt their abilities and feel shame.
Initiative vs guilt (3 to 5 years) Children learn to assume more responsibility by taking initiative but will feel guilty if they overstep limits set by parents
Industry vs inferiority (5 years to puberty) Children learn to be competent by mastering new intellectual, social, and physical skills or feel inferior if they fail to develop these skills
Identity vs role confusion (adolescence) adolescents develop a sense of identity by experimenting with different roles. No role experimentation may result in role confusion.
Intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood) young adults form intimate relationships with others or become isolated because of a failure to do so.
generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood) middle-aged adults feel they are helping the next generation through their work and child rearing, or they stagnate because they feel that they are not helping
integrity vs despair (late adulthood) older adults assess their lives and develop a sense of integrity if they find their lives have been meaningful, and a sense of despair if their lives do not seem meaningful.
Kohlberg’s 3 Basic Levels of Moral Thinking
Preconventional Stage 1 - child does the right thing to avoid punishment, obey authority. Stage 2 - child does the right thing to gain reward, further self-interests.
Conventional Stage 3 - Do the right thing to conform, live up to expectations of others. Stage 4 - Do the right thing to maintain law and order, do your duty.
Postconventional Stage 5 - do the right thing to promote the society's welfare, as a social contract. Stage 6 - do the right thing to promote justice.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind.
Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the
preoperational stage too young to perform certain mental operations
Preoperational; Egocentrism They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.
Concrete operational given concrete materials, 7 - 11year-olds grasp conservation problems and mentally pour liquids back and forth into glasses of different shapes conserving their quantities. Children in this stage are also able to transform mathematical functions.
group polarization the prevailing opinion within a group to become more extreme after discussion
Stanley Milgram classic research on obedience; approximately 60 % of subjects administered the highest voltage shock
Cognitive dissonance Mismatch of our attitudes and actions. To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957).
Created by: ninacn
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