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AP Psych: S-2

Developmental Psychology

QuestionAnswer
What type of research uses participants of different ages to compare how certain variables may change over the life span? Cross-sectional
What type of research studies one group of participants over a long time? Longitudinal
What does Developmental Psychologist study? How genes influence our developmental
What are Teratogens? chemicals or agents that can harm a fetus if ingested or contracted by the mother.
What does Fetal Alcohol Syndrome cause? small, malformed skulls and mental retardation due to heavy drinking while pregnant
Why is Fetal Alcohol effect less severe than the syndrome? moderate drinking
What are reflexes? specific, inborn, automatic responses to certain specific stimuli
What is a rooting reflex? When a baby turns his or her head to place an object that has touched their cheek into their mouth.
A pacifier is placed into an infant's mouth and the infant immediately begins to suck on it. What is this called? Sucking reflex
What is a grasping reflex? When an object is placed into a baby's palm or foot pad, the baby will try to grasp the object with his or her fingers or toes.
When startled, a baby will fling his or her limbs out and then quickly retract them. What is this called? Moro Reflex
when a baby's foot is stroked, he or she will spread the toes. What is this called? Babinski Reflex
What can a baby do before birth? hear
What similarities do common people have with babies? similar tastes and smell
How are babies eyesight when born? legally blind
What do infants like to do when it comes to faces? look at them and other face-like objects
How does motor control develop? as neurons in the brain connect with one another and become myelinated
When can a baby roll over on its own? approx. 5 1/2 months
When can a baby stand on its own? approx. 8-9 months
When can an infant walk independently? approx. 15 months
What is attachment? the reciprocal relationship between caregiver and child
What did Harry Harlow's research on contact comfort using surrogate mothers show? The importance of emotional development
According to Mary Ainsworth's observations, when does secure attachment occur? When an infant confidently explores the novel environment while the parents are present, are distressed when they leave, and come to parents when they return.
What is it called when an infant resists being held by the parents and they explore the environment and do not go to parents for comfort when the parents return after an absence? Insecure/Avoidant attachment
What is anxious-ambivalent attachment? when an infant has an ambivalent reaction to the parents. They may show extreme stress when the parents leave but resist being comforted by them when they return
What are the three parenting styles? Authoritarian, Permissive, and Authoritative
What type of parenting is occurring when parents set strict standards for behavior and apply punishments for violations of rules? Authoritarian
What is permissive parenting? Parents do not set clear guidelines for their children
What is Authoritative parenting? When parents have set consistent standards for behavior, but the standards are reasonable and explained.
What are the four psychosexual stages developed by Freud? Oral, Anal, Phallic, and Genital
According to Freud's psychosexual stages, what is fixation? When a person remains preoccupied with the behaviors associated with one of the psychosexual stages
What is the oral stage? infants seek pleasure through their mouths.
If a person is overeating, smoking, and has a child like dependence on things people, what type of fixation would Freud diagnose them with? Oral fixation
When does the anal stage develop? During toilet/potty training
If a person is over controlling (retentive) or out of control (expulsive), what type of fixation do they have? Anal fixation.
What occurs during the phallic stage? babies realize their gender and it leads to conflict in the family
What is the Oedipus Complex? When a boy resents their father's relationship with their mother and competes for her attention.
What is the female form of the Oedipus complex? Electra Complex
What is the period of calm between six and puberty in which there is low psychosexual anxiety? the latency stage
What is the genital stage? the focus of pleasure is in the genitals and fixation in this stage is considered normal
Who was the neo-freudian who developed the psychosocial theory that emphasized that personality was influenced by experiences with others? Erik Erikson
According to this psychosocial stage, infants need to learn that they can trust their caregivers and that their requests are effective. Trust versus Mistrust
According to the autonomy versus shame/doubt stage, what should occur? people learn how to control themselves and their environment in reasonable ways, which leads to the development of a healthy will
In what stage do people take the initiative in problem solving and ask many questions or feel guilty about asking question? initiative versus guilt
During what stage do adolescents try to fit into groups in order to feel confident in their identities? Intimacy versus isolation
During the generativity versus stagnation stage, what do people want? to make sure that they are creating the type of life that they want for themselves and family
During what psychosocial stage do people reflect back on their lives and decide if they are satisfied with their achievements or not? Integrity versus despair
Who concluded that we assimilate, or incorporate out experiences into existing schema? Jean Piaget
During what age does the sensorimotor stage occur? from birth-2 years
What occurs during the sensorimotor stage? infants use their reflexes and experience the world through their senses.
What is object permanence and during what stage does it occur? understanding that objects still exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched. sensorimotor stage
What stage occurs between 2-7 and what does it entail? Preoperational stage. Children begin speaking and gradually learn to represent the world through language
When does egocentrism occur? Preoperational stage
When do we learn to think more logically and demonstrate concepts of conservation? Between the ages of 8-12 in the concrete operational stage
What is the formal operation stage? When does it occur When people develop hypothetical, deductive, and abstract reasoning.
What psychosocial stage do some people not reach? Formal operational stage
What is metacognition and when does it develop? thinking about how we think. formal operational stage
What is a criticism of Piaget's stages of developments? that our abilities to memorize, interpret, and perceive does not occur in distinct stages, but fluidly
Who created the moral stages of development? Kohlberg
What is the preconventional stage of morality? decisions are made to avoid punishment
During what moral stage are moral choices made based on how others will view them? conventional stage
During what stage do we examing the rights and values involved in our choices and make decisons according to our own developed sense of morality? postconventional
what is the stage of morality that not all people achieve postconventional
What does Gilligan's research reveal about boys and girls morality? boys have a more absolute view of what is moral, while girls pay more attention to situational factors
What theory states there differences between male and female brains? Biopsychological (neuropsychological)
According to the Biopsychological (neuropsychological) theory, what is the difference in the brain between men and women women have larger corpus callosums than men