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AP Psych. S-1

Methods and Biological Bases of Behavior

When is research considered valid? When the test measures what it was designed to measure; accurate
When is research considered reliable? When it can be replicated and is consistent in its results.
What can the survey method NOT do? reveal a cause-effect relationship.
What is the overall charge of a neuron at resting state? mostly negative.
What is an action potential? the electric message firing of a neuron.
What does the central nervous system include? brain and spinal cord. all the nerves housed within bone.
Hindsight Bias the tendency upon hearing about research findings to think that they knew it all along
What is the goal of scientific research? predict what will happen in advance
applied research uses clear, practical applications
basic research research that explores areas of interest but are not intended to have immediate, real-world applications
hypothesis expresses relationship between two variables
dependent variable the variable that is changed in response to the manipulation of the independent variable.
independent variable variable that is manipulated
theory explanation of some phenomenon that allows researchers to generate testable hypothesis and test them.
operational definitions The details on how a researcher will conduct his/her research so other researchers can later duplicate the research.
sampling process by which participants are selected
sample group of participants
what is the goal in selecting a sample? that the sample be a representative of a larger population.
Random selection when participants of a sample are selected randomly and had an equal chance of being selected.
stratified sampling all areas of the population are represented in the sample.
what is the advantage of laboratory experiments? control
what is the advantage of field experiments? more realistic because they are conducted in the real world.
What does an experiment allow for a researcher? control for confounding variables
confounding variable variable that can cause any difference between the experimental and control conditions. NOT the independent variable.
Random assignment each participant has an equal chance of being placed into any group
what does random assignment limit? it limits the effect of participant-relevant confounding variables.
When do situation-relevant confounding variables occur? when the experimental group and the control group are placed in different environments
experimenter bias the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently
double-blind procedure neither the participants nor the researcher are able to affect the outcome of the research due to the fact that both are unaware if a placebo is being given or not
response/subject bias the tendency for subjects to behave in certain ways
what is social desirability? tendency to try to give politically correct answers
Hawthorne effect subjects improve or modify an aspect of their behavior being experimentally measured simply in response to the fact that they are being studied
counterbalancing using participants as their own control group
correlation expresses a relationship between two variables. DOES NOT ascribe cause of relationship
positive correlation presence of one thing predicts the presence of another
negative correlation the presence of one thing predicts the absence of another
survey method people fill out question answer surveys.
Naturalistic observation whereby researchers observe participants in their natural habitats without interacting with them.
case study long term research on one participant or a small group.
What is the caveat of a case study? the findings of a case study cannot be generalized to a larger population
descriptive statistics describe a set of data
frequency distribution summarizing data
frequency polygons line graphs
histograms bar graphs
central tendency attempt to mark the center of a distribution
What are the 3 common measures of central tendency? mean, median, mode
measures of variability attempt to depict the diversity of the distribution
3 measures of variability range standard deviation-the square root of the variance the variance and the standard deviation relate the average distance of any score in the distribution from the mean
normal curve bell shaped curve
What do correlations measure? the relationship between two variables
correlational coefficient shows the strength of the correlation
what do inferential statistics determine? whether or not findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was selected
what is the purpose of the institutional review board (IRB)? reviews research proposals for ethical violations and/or procedural errors
What is neuro-anatomy? the study of the parts and function of neurons
neurons individual nerve cells
dendrites ends of a neuron that pick up information from neighboring cells into the cell body
cell body (soma) contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain life
axon wire-like structure at the end of the cell that transmit electrical impulses
myelin sheath fatty sheath that wraps around the axons and assists in the conduction of impulses
terminal buttons branched end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters chemicals that enable the neurons to communicate
synapse tiny gap between two neurons into which a neurotransmitter is released
where do neurotransmitters fit? in the receptor sites on the dendrite. lock and key mechanism
All or none principle a neuron fires completely or it does not fire
excitatory neurotransmitters excite the next cell into firing
inhibitory neurotransmitters stop the next cell from firing
acetylcholine helps with motor movement
what is a lack of acetylcholine associated with? Alzheimers
dopamine motor movement and alertness.
What is a lack of dopamine associated with? Parkinson's disease
What is an abundance of dopamine associated with? Schizophrenia
endorphins substances produced in the body that involve pain relief and positive moods.
What is used to help mood control and is associated with depression? serotonin
What type of neurons take info from the senses to the brain? afferent (sensory) neurons
What do interneurons do? take messages from the brain and spinal cord and send them elsewhere.
What does the Central Nervous System control? brain and spinal cord. all the nerves infused in bone
What does the Peripheral Nervous System include? all the nerves not encased in bone.
What two categories is the Peripheral system divided into? somatic and autonomic
What does the Somatic Nervous System control? voluntary muscle movements
What sends impulses to the somatic nervous system? the motor cortex
What controls the automatic functions of the body and response to stress? The Autonomic nervous system.
What are the divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System? sympathetic and parasympathetic
what mobilizes are body to stress? Sympathetic nervous System
What does the Sympathetic nervous system do? slows digestion, accelerates heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
What slows the body down after a response to stress? parasympathetic nervous system
What is lesioning? the removal or destruction of part of the brain?
How can lesioning control mentally ill patients? frontal lobotomy
What does an EEG do? detects brain waves.
What is used in sleep research and why? EEG. can identify the different stages of sleep and dreaming
What is a CAT or CT scan? a sophisticated x-ray that creates a three dimensional picture of the brain
What is the limit of a CAT scan? It only shows the structure of the brain, not the functions.
How does and MRI work? it uses magnetic fields to measure the density and location of brain material.
What is the only thing an MRI can do? display the structure of the brain.
What does a PET scan allow? lets researchers see the most active areas of the brain during certain tasks
What does a PET scan measure? glucose and other chemicals.
What does and fMRI combine? the MRI and PET scans
What does the fMRI do? it shows details of brain structure with information about blood flow in the brain
What does evolutionary psychology organize the brain into? the old brain and the new brain
What is the old brain? the hindbrain and midbrain
What is the new brain? the forebrain
What does the hindbrain consist of? the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
What does the hindbrain control? the basic biological functions that keep us alive.
What is the Medulla (oblongata)? blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing
What does the Pons control? facial expressions
What connects the hindbrain to the midbrain and forebrain? The Pons
What is the cerebellum called? the little brain
What coordinates some habitual muscle movements? The cerebellum
What controls general body arousal and the ability to focus? the reticular formation
What does the midbrain control? simple movements with sensory info
What controls our thought and reason? The Forebrain
What does the Forebrain consist of? the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and the hippocampus
What does the Thalamus recieve? sensory signals coming up the spinal cord
What does the Hypothalamus control? body temperature, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst, and the endocrine system
What structure of the brain is vital to our emotions? the amygdala
What is the hippocampus involved with? memory.
Why is the surface of the cerebral cortex wrinkled? to increase the available surface area of the brain
left hemisphere gets sensory messages and controls the motor function of the right half of the body
right hemisphere gets sensory messages and controls the motor function of the left half of the body
what are the four lobes of the brain frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
Broca's area controls the muscles responsible for producing speech
what is the role of the frontal lobe? plays a critical role in thought processes
What does the parietal lobe contain? the sensory cortex
What interprets messages from our eyes in our visual cortex? Occipital cortex
What does the Temporal lobes process? sound
What interprets written and broken speech? Wernicke's area
What allows for the brain to make new connections after damage? plasticity
What comprises all the glands and hormones they secrete in the body? Endocrine system
What do the adrenal glands produce? adrenaline