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Midterm 4 Ch 17 & 18

Physiology 2420

QuestionAnswer
What type of specialized junction connects epithelial cells lining the renal tubes? tight junctions
Name an element of the micturition reflex? increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity; decrease in somatic motor neuron activity; activation of stretch receptors
Which section of the nephron is the ascending limb of the loop of Henle? distal convoluted tube
Direct control of water excretion of the kidneys is controlled by anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Which of these is under voluntary control? urethra, detrusor muscle, internal sphincter, external sphincter external sphincter
According to your textbook, which of the following is not discussed as being used to determine either the GFR or renal blood flow? PAH, inulin, creatinine, plasma plasma
Where are most microvilli found? proximal convoluted tubule
What is the basic functional unit of the kidney? nephron
Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the glomerulus? efferent arteriole
The last part of the nephron is the ______________. collecting duct
Which of the following is usually not found in urine? magnesium, urea, uric acid, glucose glucose
Where are most microvilli found? proximal convoluted tubule
What are some functions of the kidneys? regulation of plasma ionic concentration, regulation of plasma osmolarity, regulation of plasma volume, regulation of plasma hydrogen concentration
The primary function of the kidneys involves regulating the ___________ and the ______________ of plasma and interstitial fluid. volume; composition
Once produced, urine travels though the ____________ until it reaches the bladder, from which it is released into the external environment through the ____________. ureter; urethra
Which of the following is NOT part of the urinary system? kidneys, liver, ureters, urethra, bladder liver
What two structures make up the renal corpuscle? Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
Blood leaves the __________ and enters the glomerulus. afferent arteriole
The juxtaglomerular apparatus describes the unique region of the nephron where __________. the afferent and efferent arterioles are in contact with the distal tubule
What is the process whereby molecules are selectively transported from the peritubular fluid to the lumen of the renal tubules? secretion
What is the process whereby protein-free plasma moves by bulk flow from the glomerulus into the Bowman's capsule? glomerular filtration
Which of the following pressures across the glomerular capillaries approaches zero? Bowman's capsule oncotic pressure
Which of the following conditions would increase glomerular filtration pressure? increase protein in Bowman's space
The diffusion of water across a tubule is driven by differences in ___________ across the membrane. osmolarity
Name two functions of the kidneys. regulate plasma, osmolarity, volume
Name one of the four Starling forces in the renal corpuscle that factor into glomerular filtration pressure Glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure, Bowman’s capsule osmotic pressure, Bowman’s capsule hydrostatic pressure, Glomerular osmotic pressure.
Name one of three exchange processes that occur within the renal nephrons Filtration, secretion, reabsorption
Name two reasons reabsorption in the distal tubule is regulated and reabsorption in the proximal tubule is considered nonregulated. Brush border, leaky tight junctions, more mitochondria
If you wanted to calculate the GFR in a patient, what is one substance you could detect in the urine in order to determine this? Inulin, creatinine
Describe how tubuloglomerular feedback acts to control the GFR Macula densa cells detect a change in flow of tubular fluid past them and secrete a paracrine that trigger contraction or relaxation of the afferent arteriole which changes the GFR in a direction opposite that of the original change
Reabsorptionb is the movement of filtered solutes and water from ___________ to the plasma tubules (renal tubules -> peritubular capillaries)
At a certain point during bladder filling, the internal pressure within the bladder becomes strong enough to activate what kind of receptors in the bladder wall? stretch receptors
Name one muscle in the urinary bladder that must relax in order for micturition to occur. Internal urethral sphincter, external urethral sphincter
Reabsorption mostly takes place in the proximal tubule. What are two reasons reabsorption mostly occurs in this area as opposed to other places such as the distal tubule. Brush border, leaky tight junctions, more mitochondria
Which two components of the nephron make up the renal corpuscle? glomerulus, Bowman's capsule
Describe how myogenic regulation acts to control the GFR Increased flow stretches smooth muscle which then causes constriction
Created by: GracieLou