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Psychology 2000 Fina

Final Exam Material

free association in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconsious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing
psychoanalysis Freud's theory of personality that attributes throughs and actions to unconscious motive and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
unconscious according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable throughts, wishes, feelings and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
id contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and agressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
ego the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality; operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure
superego the part of personality, that according to Freud, represent internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscious) and for future aspirations
psychosexual stages the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus of distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus Complex according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Identification the process by which according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
fixation according for Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were resolved
defense mechanisms in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness
regression psychoanalytic defense mechanism in whcih an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which ego unconsiously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
projection psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or agressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger towards a safer outlet
denial defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
collective unconscious Carl Jun's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our specie's history
projective test a personality test such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach Test the ost widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
terror-management theory a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death
self-actualization according to Maslow; one of the ultimate psychological needs that arise after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditional positive regard according to Roger's, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
self-concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in answer to the question "who am I?"
trait a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
personality inventory a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
empirically derived test a test as developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
social-cognitive perspective views behavior as influence by the interaction between people's traits and their social context
reciprocal determinism the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition and environment
personal control the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless
external locus of control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
internal locus of control the perception that you control your own fate
learned helplessness the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
positive psychology the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover the promote strengths virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
self in contemporary psychology assumed to be the center of personality; the organized of our thoughts feelings and actions
spotlight effect overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
self-esteem one's feelings of high or low self worth
self-serving bias a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
psychological disorder deviant, distressful and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings or behaviors
medical model the concept that diseases, in this case, psychological disorders have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases cured often through treatment in a hospital
DSM-IV-TR the American Psychiatric Associations's Diagnostic and Situational Manual of Mental Disorders
anxiety disorders psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
generalized anxiety disorders an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
panic disorder an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations
phobia an anxiety disorder marked by a persistant, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and or actions
post-traumatic stress disorder an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
post-traumatic growth positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
dissociative disorders disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated from pervious memories, thoughts or feelings
dissociative identity disorder a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
personality disorders psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
antisocial personality disorder a personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
somatoform disorder psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause
conversion disorder a rare somatoform disorder in which a person can experience very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
hyochondriasis a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
mood disorders psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
major depressive disorder a mood disorder in which a person experiences in the absence of drugs or a medical condition two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings or worthlessness and diminished intrest or please in most activities
mania a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive wildly optimistic state
biopolar disorder a mood disorder in which the person alternate between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
schizophrenia a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotions and actions
delusions false beliefs often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders
psychotherapy treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
elective approach an approach to psychotherapy that depending on the clients problems uses techniques from various forms of therapy
psychoanalysis Freud's technique of interpreting dreams
resistance in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
interpretation in psychoanalysis, the analyst's nothing supposed dream meanings, resistances and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
transference in psychoanalysis, the patients transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
psychodynamic therapy therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences and that seeks to enhance self insight
insight therapies a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and denses
client-centered therapy a humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine accepting emphatic environment to facilitate clients' growth
active listening empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
unconditional positive regard a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance
behavior therapy therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
counterconditioning a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors
exposure therapies behavioral techniques such as systematize desensitizing that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid
systematic desensitization a type of exposure therapy that associated a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggered stimuli
virtual reality exposure therapy an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears such as airplane flying, spiders or public speaking
aversive conditioning a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
token economy an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some form for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange tokens for various privileges or treats
cognitive therapy therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
cognitive-behavior therapy a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
family therapy therapy that treats the family as a system
psychotherapy treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
meta-analysis a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
evidence-based practice clinical decision making that integrate the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
biomedical therapy prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
psychopharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
antipsychotic drugs drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorders
tardive dyskinesia involuntary movements of facial muscles, tongue and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
anti-anxiety drugs drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
antidepressant drugs drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety; different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
electroconvulsive therapy a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current os sent through the parin of an anesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
psychosurgery surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
lobotomy a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients; procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal loves to the emotion-controlling center of the inner brain
Created by: 726621891
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