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RCP113 Final

Final Exam Study Guide

Primary organ used to metabolize medications? Liver
Primary organ used to eliminate medications from the body? Kidney
Where does an adrenergic medication work? It works on nerve fibers that are stimulated by norepinephrine (NE) or epinephrine-Nerves of the Sympathetic Branch of the CNS.
Where does a cholinergic medication work? It works on nerve fibers that are stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh)-Nerves of the parasympathetic Branch of the CNS.
How does a Sympathomimetic medication work? It enhances the adrenergic response of the sypathetic nerves.
How does a Parasympatholytic medication work? It blocks the cholinergic response of the parasympathetic nerves.
What is an Orphan drug? A drug that is developed for a rare disease that may not recover the cost of development.
What are the three phases of drug action? Pharmaceutical-Dosage/Administration Pharmacokinetic-Absorption/Metabolism/Elimination Pharmacodynamic-Targets site/Effects
What are the advantages of the inhalation route of drug administration? -Smaller doses -Fewer/less severe side effects -Rapid onset -Targeted to the respiratory sys. -Painless -Safer -Convenient
What is the Therapeutic Index? The difference between therapeutic and toxic concentrations of a drug.
What is the difference between Affinity and Efficacy? Affinity is attraction. Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired effect.
What is Tachyphylaxis? Diminishing responsiveness to a drug after routine usage.
What is a Corticosteroid? It is an anti-inflammatory drug which inhibits the activity and number of inflammitory cells. Commonly used for asthma, COPD and rhinitis.
What are the three categories of Nonsteroidal Anti-Asthma Agents? 1)Mediator Agonists-Blocks histamine/prophylactic 2)Anti-Leukotrienes-Inhibits leukotrine formation/prophylatic 3)Monoclonal Antibodies-Decreases mediators in allergic response
What is a Xanthine? Promotes bronchodilation by inhibiting the breakdown of Beta 2 agonists-allows the drug to work longer. Also increases ventilatory drive and expiratory flow rates-reduces air trapping.
What is the result of stimulating alpha receptor sites? Vasoconstriction & Increased B/P
What is the result of stimulating Beta-1 receptor sites? Increased HR & Increased force of cardiac contractions
What is the result of stimulating Beta-2 receptor sites? Bronchodilation
What three physiological changes occur in the lungs as a result of histamine release? Secretions Edema Bronchoconstriction
Name the three bronchodilators recommended for continuous nebulization? Albuterol Levalbuterol (XopenX) Terbutaline
what is meant by parenteral administration? Given intravenously (IV)
What are the possible adverse effects of sympathomimetic bronchodilators? -Tremors -Palpitations -Tachycardia -Headache -Hypertension -Nervousness -Dizziness -Nausea -Vomiting Worsening V/Q Mismatch
What is the keyhole theory? Bronchodilators begin with a catecholamine nucleus and as they progressed the amine side got longer making it look like a key.
What is the difference between "Cidal" & "Static" antimicrobial agents? Cidal-Kills the pathogen Static-Inhibits growth/spread of pathogen
What are common adverse side effect of corticosteroids? -Oral thrush (candida) -Hoarseness -Bronchoconstriction -Cough
Mucolytics should be accompanied by what companion drug? Bronchodilator
What are common side effects of of mucolytics? -Bronchospasm -Rhinorrhea -Airway obstruction
What are the clinical uses of Xanthines? -COPD -Asthma -Neonatal apnea
What are some of the possible side effects for Xanthines? -Tremors -Tachypnea -SVT -Hypotension -Diuresis
What are some of the possible complications of using diuretics? -Vol depletion -Hypokalemia -Acid-base disorders -Hyperglycemia -Ototoxicity (hearing imparement)
Acetaminophen Tn: Tylenol Cat: Non-narcotic Analgesic Ind: Anti-pyretic
Meperidine Tn: Demerol Cat: Narcotic/Opioid Ind: Pain
Morphine Tn: Cat: Narcotic/Opioid Ind: Pain Add: Vasodilator
Cefazoline Tn: Ancef Cat: Antibiotic
Ceftriaxone Tn: Rocefphin Cat: Antibiotic (broad)
Levofloxacin Tn: Levaquin Cat: Antibiotic
Tobramycin Tn: TOBI Cat: Antibiotic
Vancomycin Tn: Cat: Antibiotic Add: Tx for MRSA
Amphotericin B Tn: Fungizone Cat: Antifungal
Haloperidol Tn: Haldol Cat: Antiphsycotic
Acyclovir Tn: Zovirax Cat: Antiviral
Rifampin Tn: Cat: Anti-tuberculin Add: Tx TB
Formoterol & Budesonide Tn: Symbicort Cat: Bronchodilator & Corticosteroid
Salmeterol & Fluticasone Tn: Advair Diskus Cat: Bronchodilator & Corticosteroid
Albuterol Tn: Respolin (DPI) Aerolin (HHN) Proventil (MDI) Cat: Bronchodilator
Epinephrine Tn: Bronkaid Cat: Bronchodilator/Cardiac Add: Status Asthmaticus Cardiac arrest
Levalbuterol Tn: XopenX Cat: Bronchodilator Add: Less cardiac effects
Salmeterol Tn: Serevent Cat: Bronchodilator
Albuterol & Ipatropium Bromide Tn: Combivent (DPI) DuoNeb (SVN) Cat: Combo bronchodilator
Atropine Tn: Cat: LABD/Cardiac Add: Dysrrhythmic Agent
Ipatropium Bromide Tn: Atrovent Cat: LABD
Tiotropium Bromide TN: Spiriva HandiHaler Cat: LABD
Belcomethasone Tn: Vanceril QVAR HFA (DPI) Cat: Corticosteroid
Fluticasone Tn: Flovent Rotadisk (DPI) Flovent (MDI) Cat: Corticosteroid
Methylprednisone Tn: Solu-Medrol (IV) Cat: Corticosteroid
Chlorothaiazide Tn: Diuril Cat: Thiazide Diuretic Add: For CHF/Hypertension
Furosemide Tn: Lasix Cat: Loop Diuretic
Mannitol Tn: Cat: Osmotic Diuretic Add: Used to reduce ICP
Amiodarone Tn: Cat: Dysrrhymic Agent
Digitalis Tn: Digoxin Cat Inatropic Agent
Acetylcysteine Tn: Mycomyst Cat: Mucolytic Add: Also used for acetaminophen overdose
Atratracurium Tn: Tracrium Cat: NMBA-Paralytic Ind: Mech Ventilation
Cisatracurium Tn: Nimbex Cat: NMBA-Paralytic Ind: Mech Ventilation
Vecuronium Tn: Norcuron Cat: NMBA-Paralytic Ind: Mech Ventilation
Succinylcholine Chloride Tn: Anectine Cat: NMBA-Paralytic Ind: Intubation Add: Only Depolarizing agent avail
Cromolyn Sodium Tn: Intal Cat: NSAID Ind: Prophylaxis Add: Mediator Antagonist
Montelukast Sodium Tn: Singulair Cat: NSAID Ind: Prophlaxis Add: Leukotriene Mod.
Nedocromil Sodium Tn: Tilade Cat: NSAID Ind: Prophylaxis Add: Mediator Antagonist
Naloxone Tn: Narcan Cat: Respiratory Stimulant Ind: Drug Overdose
Diprivan Tn: Propofol Cat: Sedative/Hypnotic
Ketamine Tn: Ketanest Cat: Sedative/Hypnotic
Lorazepam Tn: Ativan Cat: Sedative/Tranquilizer Add: Benzodiazepine
Midazolam Tn: Versed Cat: Sedative/Tranquilizer Add: Benzodiazepine
Nitroglyercin Tn: NTG Cat: Vasodilator
Nitroprusside Tn: Nipride Cat: Vasodilator
Dopamine Tn: Cat: Vasopressor
Norepinephrine Tn: Levophed Cat: Vasopressor
Aminophyline Tn: Cat: Xanthine (IV) Ind: COPD, Asthma, Neonatal Apnea
Theophyline Tn: Cat: Xanthine Ind: COPD, Asthma, Neonatal Apnea
How do sympathomimetic drugs work? They stimulate adenyl cyclase to convert ATP to cyclic AMP-Bronchodilation/inhibits histamine
How do parasympatholytic drugs work? They block the guanyl cyclase which keeps GTP from becoming cyclic GMP-Bronchoconstriction/histamine release
Why can't catecholamines be given orally? They breakdown by the enzyme COMT in the digestive tract.
Created by: JimStry