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Jeffers Chapter 14

Norms Rules (impicit or explicit) that govern the behavior of groups
Deindividuation loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in situations that promote high arousal and anonymity in groups
Diffusion of responsibility An explanation of the failure of bystander intervention-when several bystanders are present, no one person assumes responsibility
Norm of Reciprocity Compliance Strategy. Occurs when someone think they should do something nice for someone who has done something nice for them.
Social Facilitation People perform tasks better in front of an audience than they do when they are alone
Social Impairment Being watched by others hurts performance-especially if performing a newly learned, or highly difficult task
Conformity The tendency of people to go a long with the views or actions of others.
Social Loafing Social phenomenon where individuals do not put in as much effort when acting as part of a group as when they are acting alone
Group Polarization Tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than the group would make individually
Groupthink Tendency for some groups to make bad decisions. No one wants to be the lone dissenter.
Stanley Milgram Known for the highly controversial experiment on obedience.
Social Context The real, imagined or symbolic presence of others; the activities and interactions that take place among people; the settings in which behavior occurs.
script A schema for an event (how something normally "plays out".
Solomon Asch Known for his conformity experiments. Subjects conformed one third of the time when the confederates voted unanimously
Festinger Known for his cognitive dissonance study
Latane and Darly Emergency situation created to test people's helping behavior (bystander intervention)
Philip Zimbardo Simulated a prison setting at Stanford University and assign "roles" of prisoner and guards
Foot-in-the Door Technique Form of compliance-a small request leads to a larger request
Low ball technique Offers an initially low price, the "ups the ante" with additional costs one would assume would be included.
Door-in-the-face technique Compliance strategy-make an outlandish request and follow it up with a smaller, more reasonable request
Moriarity's theft studies People more likely to intervene if someone asked them to "keep an eye" on their belongings
Muzafer Sherif Robber's Cave study-demonstrated the importance of cooperation amongst groups
superordinate goals shared goals that overide differences among people and require cooperation
Frustration-aggression hypothesis The idea that a frustrating situation will lead to aggressive behavior
Just-world Phenomenon The tendency to believe that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. This is why many "blame the victim"
Aggression Any physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy
Ingroup "Us"-people with whom we share a common identity
Outgroup "Them"-those perceived different than us
Ingroup bias Tendency to favor our own group
Scapegoat Theory Theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
stereotypes generalized beliefs about a group of people; old people are bad drivers, blonds are ditzy, etc.
Discrimination taking an action against a group of people because of stereotyped beliefs and prejudice
Prejudice Unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members We "pre-judge" usually based on stereotypes
John Darley and Bibb Latane Psychologists who studied the circumstances that determine when a bystander will intervene on behalf of another person
Altrusim A display of genuine and unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Mere exposure effect Phenomenon that repeated exposure to a novel stimuli increases liking them
Passionate love Aroused state of intense positive absorption in another-usually present at the beginning of a relationship
Companionate Love Deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with who our lives are intertwined
Minority Influence The power of one individual who goes up against majority rule or resistance
Self-fulfilling prophecy When we believe something about others, or ourselves, and we act in ways to make that belief come true
Cognitive dissonance theory Theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when our thoughts are inconsistent with our actions.
Attitude A belief or feeling that predisposes you to respond in a particular way to people
Central Route of Persuasion involves being persuaded by the arguments or the content of the message. For example, after hearing a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you found the candidates views and arguments very convincing
Peripheral route of persuasion involves being persuaded in a manner that is not based on the arguments or the message content. For example, after reading a political debate you may decide to vote for a candidate because you like the sound of the person's voice
Robert Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Love Love is made up of intimacy, passion, and committment.
Aronson and Gonzales Devised a teaching strategy, "Jigsaw Classroom" response to desegregation
Ethnocentrism belief that our culture is superior to others
Self-serving bias to take personal credit for our own achievements and blame failures on situational factors
Actor-Observer bias tendency to attribute our behaviors to situational factors and others' behaviors to dispositional factors
Social Roles ascribed social positions and defined behavior expectations in groups
Fundamental Attribution Error Occurs when people tend to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors
False-Consensus effect Tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them
Chameleon effect Our tendency to mimic or imitate others
Jigsaw Classroom A classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class.
Optimistic Explanatory style Accounting for negative events or situations with external (not my fault), unstable (its temporary), and specific explanations
Pessimistic Explanatory Style a tendency to explain bad events that happen in a self-blaming manner
Normative Social Influence Behavior that is motivated by the desire to gain social acceptance and approval.
Mirror-image perceptions Mutual views held by conflicting people; each side sees themselves as ethical and the other side as evil
Social Trap a situation in which conflicting parties, by pursuing their self-interests rather than the good of the group, become caught up in mutually destructive behavior
GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
Relative Deprivation The gap between what people have and what they think they deserve
Feel-Good Do-Good Phenomenon you are more likely to help other people when you are already in a good mood
Created by: Jeffers
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