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Psych 2000 Test 4

Test Four Material

motivation a need or desire that energizes and direct behavior
instinct a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
incentive a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
hierarchy of needs Maslow's pyramid of humans needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that much first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and the psychological needs become active
glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissue. When the level is low, we feel hunger
set point the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls before this weight an increase in hunger and lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly underweight yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise
binge-eating disorder significant binge-eating episodes followed by distress, disgust, or guilt but without the compensatory purging, fasting or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
sexual response cycle the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refractory period a resting period after orgasm, during with a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
estrogens sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing for female sex characteristics.
testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it but extra in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organ in the fetus and the development of male characteristics during puberty
sexual orientation an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
emotion a response of the whole organism involving physiological arousal, expressive behavior and conscious experience
James-Lange Theory the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard theory the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion, one much be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal
catharsis emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing: aggressive energy relives agressive urges
feel-good, do-good phenomenon people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
subjective well-being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objetive well-being to evaluate people's quality of life
adaptation-level phenomenon our tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experiences
relative deprivation the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
behavioral medicine an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
health psychology a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
stress the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
general adaptation syndrome Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases- alarm, resistance and exhaustion
coronary heart disease the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscles; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
Type A Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally agressive and anger prone people
Type B Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
psychophysiological illness literally, "mind-body: illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches
psychoneuroimmunology the study of how psychological, neural and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health
lymphocytes the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system
coping alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive or behavioral methods
problem-focused coping attempting to alleviate stress directly-by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor
emotion-focused coping attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
aerobic exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also reduce stress, depression and anxiety
biofeedback a system for electronically recording, amplifying and feeing back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
complementary and alternative medicine as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement or seve as alternative to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals or reimbursed by insurance companies
Created by: 726621891