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RT Lab Norms

lab norms and what they mean.

QuestionAnswer
Na+ Sodium 135-145 meq/L
what causes clinical increases in Na+ Cushing syndrome, hyperadrenocorticism, excessive intake, decrease H20 ( dehydration) hyperpnea, diabetes, diuretics, cardiac failure.
What are signs and symptoms of increased Na+ thirst, viscous mucous, dry rough tongue
What causes clinical decrease in Na+ adrenal insufficiency, alkli, burns, diuretics, dehydration, trauma, If you have increase in Body H20 Na+ decreases from decreased renal output, artificial hyperglycemia, CHF, cirhoisis, innapropriate ADH, renal insufficiency.
What are signs and symptoms of decrease in Na+ Increased heart rate, Increased blood pressure, cold clammy skin, apprehension, convulsions.
What is Na+ Major extracellular cation comprises majority of osmotically active solute, greatly affects distribution of body water.
K+ 3.5+5.0 mEq/L
What is K+ Major intracellular cation, maintains, intracellular osmolality, affects muscle contraction, plays role in nerve impulses, enzyme action, and cell membrane function.
What causes increases in K+ Excessive administration, Shift from the cells- Acidosis(metabolic), infection, sucinylcholine, trauma, decreased urine output.
What are signs and symptoms of increased K+ Arrythmias, muscle weakness
What causes decrease in K+ Shift INTO cells- Alkalosis, GI loss- anorexia, diarrhea,ng suctioning, vomiting. Increased urine output- cushings syndrome, diabetic ketoacidosis causes the shift as a compensatory mechanism.
What are signs and symptoms of Decreased K+ arrythmias, muscle weakness
Cl- 95-105 mEq/L
What is Cl- Principle extracellular anion, important in acid base balance.
What causes increase in Cl- Cardiac decompensation, renal insufficiency, salt intake.
What causes decreases in Cl- COPD, Cushings syndrome, dehydration, diabetic ketoacidosis, diuretics, fever, meatabolic acidosis, pneumonia.
Po4 1.4--2.7 MEq/L
What is the P04 major intracellular anion
What causes increase in the Po4 Renal insufficiency
What causes decrease in the Po4 Diabetic ketoacidosis.
Ca++ 4.5-5.8
What is Ca++ Essential anion for bones, teeth, mucoproteins. Role in cell membrane, muscle contraction and coagulation.
What causes increases in Ca++ Acidosis, adrenal insufficiency, diuretics, ( Thiazide) imobilization, sarcoidosis, tumors.
Symptoms of increased Ca++ Increased HR.
What causes decreased Ca++ Alkalosis, diarrhea, hypoproteinemia, osteomalacia, renal insufficiency, steroid therapy, vitamin D deficiency.
Mg++ 1.3-2.5 mEq/L
What is Mg++ Intracellular cation, important in ATP function, acetylcholine release at the N-M junction.
What causes an increase in Mg++ Antacid ingestion, parathyroidectomy, renal insufficiency.
What causes a decrease in Mg++ Chornic alcoholism, diabetic acidosis, diarrhea, NG Sx, severe renal disease.
RBCs Males= 4.6- 6.2 million/UL Females= 4.2- 5.4 million/UL
What is the clinical significance of RBC's Number of cells available to carry O2/Co2
What causes an increase in RBC's 1: Polythycemia 2: polythycemia from chronic hypoxemia, severe diarrhea and dehydration.
What causes a decrease in RBC's Anemia, Leukemia, hemorrhage followed by restored blood volume.
What is Hgb grams of hemoglobin in 100 ml of whole blood.
what causes increase in Hgb Polycythemia, CHF, COPD, deyhdration, high altitudes.
What causes a decrease in Hgb Acute blood loss, anemias, increased fluid intake, pregnancy.
Hematocrit ( Hct) Males= 39-55% Females= 36-48%
What is Hematocrit ( Hct) % of blood volume occupied by RBC's
What causes an increase in Hematocrit (Hct) COPD, dehydration, erythrocytosis, shock.
What causes a decrease in Hematocrit (Hct) Acute blood loss, anemia's, increase fluid intake, pregnancy.
WBCs 5,000- 10,000/UL SI= 5-10x10to the 9th/L
What is the significance of WBC's Blood cells which fight infection.
What causes increase in WBC's Leukocytosis: acute infection, post surgery, trauma. Bacterial infection, neoplasm, epinephrine, steroids, chronic infection, viral infection ( hepatitis, mono) TB.
What causes a decrease in WBC's Leukopenia: Cancer therapy, overwhelmed or suppressed immune system, CHF, HIV< renal failure.
Neutrophils 40-75%
Neutrophil Segs Immature
Neutrophil Bands mature cells.
Lymphocytes T-B cells 20-45%
Monocytes 2-10%
Eosinophils 1-6%
Eosinophils and basophils are elevated in? Allergy/Collagen. Asthma
Basophils 0-1%
Platelets 150,000-400,000/UL
What is the significance of Platelets? Blood constituent for clotting.
What causes an increase in Platelets COPD, high altitude, inflammation, malignancy, PE, TB, trauma, many drugs.
What causes a decrease in Platelets Acute leukemia, anemias, bleeding, lupus.
Anion Gap 7-16 mEq/L
Anion Gap Na+ - (Cl- + HCo3)
What causes increase in the Anion Gap Keto or lactic acidosis,, salicylate, or ethylene glycol poison, dehydration.
Creatine Kinase ( CPK) Male 38-174 U/L Female 26-140 U/L
What is the significance of Creatine Kinase (CPK) Enzyme in the heart, skeletal muscle.
What causes increases in Creatine Kinase (CPK) MI, muscle disease, severe exercise, polymyositis.
What causes decreases in Creatine Kinase (CPK) Relative cardiac enzyme levels in blood following myocardial infarction, so a couple days after infarct they drop!
Creatine phoso-kinase MB band (CPK- MB) (CK-MB) SPecific CK isoenzyme for the heart muscle. Normal is 0-6%
What causes an increase in Creatine Phoso-kinase Acute MI, severe angina, cardica surgery, cardiac ischemia, mycarditis, hypokalemia, cardiac defib.
Creatinine 0.6-1.5 mg/dl
What is the significance of Creatinine By product of muscle metabolism.
What causes Creatinine to increase Nephritis, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, (indicator of kidney function)
What causes Creatinine to decrease Debilitation
glucose 60-110 mg/dl Blood sugar
What causes an increase in Glucose Diabetes mellitus, infections, stress, steroids, trauma, uremia.
What causes a decrease in Glucose Adrenal insufficiency. Insulin
Protein 6-8 gm/dl
What is the clinical significance of Protein Blood proteins affecting colloidal pressure,
What causes an increase in Proteins Dehydration, shock
What causes a decrease in protein. Hemorrhage, liver disease, leukemia, malnutrition, nephrosis, neoplastic disease.
Lactic Acid 5-20 mg/dl
What is the clinical significance of Lactic Acid By product of aerobic metabolism.
What causes increase in Lactic Acid. Hypoxia, CHF, Increased muscle activity, hemorrhage, shock.
Theophylline 10-20 mg/dl
What is the clinical significance of Theophylline. Relaxes smooth muscle of bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels.
What causes increases in Theophylline. Abdominal discomfort, anorexia, dysrhythmias, nausea, vomiting, nervousness, irritability, tachycardia.
what causes a decrease in Theophylline. Smoking and phenytoin (Dilantin) shortens half-life.
Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 8-25 mg/dl
What is the significance of the Urea Nitrogen (BUN) End product of protein metabolism.
What causes an increase in Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Adrenal or renal insufficiency, CHF, dehydration, decreased renal flow, N2 metabolism, GI bleed, shock, urine obstruction.
What causes a decrease in Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Hepatic failure, low protein diet, nephroiss, pregnancy.
Urine output! Males= 900-1800 ml/day Femals= 600-1600 ml/day
What is normal urine output an hour about 66 ml an hour.
What is the clinical significance of Urine out put. Urine output may change the acid base balance.
What causes an increase in Urine output. Diuretics, diabetes, insipidus, excessive intake.
What causes a decrease in Urine output Dehydration, hypovolemia, injury, kidney dysfunction, shock.
Urine pH 4-5-8.0
What causes an increase in Urine pH >7= bacterial infection in tract, metabolic alkalosis, a decrease in K+, vegetarian diet.
what causes a decrease in Urine pH <6= metabolic acidosis, protein diet.
Mucoid Sputum Clear, thin, frothy
What Clinical presentation exhibits Mucoid Sputum Asthma, Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, Mycoplasma pneumonia, pulmonary edema, TB, Viral pneumonia.
Purulent Sputum Yellow or green, thick, viscid, offensive odor, (pus)
What Clinical presentation exhibits Purulent sputum Brochiectisis, Lung abscess, Pneumococcal pneumonia, pseudomonas pneumonia, staphlococcal pneumonia, TB
Mucopurlent SPutum. Both mucoid and purulent.
What Clinical presentation exhibits Mucupurlent sputum Asthma, chronic bronchitis, Cystic fibrosis, emphysema, Lung Abscess, Lung cancer, Pseudomonas pneumonia, TB
Hemoptysis Sputum Bright red, Frothy blood
What clinical presentation exhibits Hemoptysis sputum Bronchietasis, Lung cancer, Neoplasm, Pulmonary Infarct, TB
Currant Jelly Sputum Blood clots
what clinical presentation exhibits Currant Jelly sputum. Lung cancer, neoplasm.
Rusty Sputum. Mucopurulent with red tinge.
What clinical presentation exhibits Rusty sputum. Bronchiectasis, Neoplasm, pneumococcal pneumonia.
Prune Juice Sputum Dark brown, mucopurulent with red tinge.
What clinical presentation Exhibits Prune Juice sputum. Klebsiella pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia
What clinical presentation exhibits Blood streaked sputum. pneumococcal and pseudomonas pneumonias.
What clinical presentation exhibits Pink Frothy sputum Pulmonary edema.
Created by: BeckyR73