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Lifespan Ch 4

QuestionAnswer
Shaken Baby Syndrome brain swelling and hemorrhaging from child abuse trauma
Forebrain Cortex
Cerebral Cortex folded surface covering the forebrain; divided into 2 hemispheres, each with 4 lobes
Frontal lobe voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality
Occipital lobe vision functions
Temporal lobe hearing, language processing, and memory
Parietal lobe spatial location, attention, and motor control
Cerebellum fastest growing part of brain in 1st year
Lateralization specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other
Right brain Visual-Spatial Relations & Abstract Reasoning
Left brain Language & Logic; Girls have larger left hemisphere. Boys brains are symmetrical.
Neurons brain nerve cells that communicate through electrical and chemical signals
Axons carry signals away from the cell body
Dendrites carry signals toward the cell body
Myelin sheath layer of fat cells that insulate axons
Synapses tiny gaps between neurons
Myelination process of encasing axons with fat cells Begins prenatally and continues into adolescence
Integration Neurons that control groups of muscles
Differentiation Each neuron takes on a specialized function
Plasticity creation of new neural pathways
Antigenic response Mom recognizes this fetus as foreign. Later sons have higher defect rate b/c of compromised immune response.
Androgen Effect Last trimester, boys release androgen (promotes male characteristics) but slows early nervous system development & cortex maturation especially in left hemisphere.
REM sleep promotes brain development
SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) infants stop breathing and die without apparent cause; Highest cause of infant death in U.S. annually Highest risk is 2-4 months of age
SIDS Risk Factor Siblings who died from SIDS, low birth weight, exposed to cigarette smoke, Being from lower SES or being African American or Eskimo; being male
SIDS prevention 1) pacifiers lower risk of SIDS 2) don’t let baby sleep on soft surface on his stomach - rebreathing own carbon monoxide. 3) don’t let baby get over heated
Reflexes built-in reactions to stimuli; generally carry survival mechanisms
Rooting Reflex when the infant’s cheek is stroked, the infant will turn its head to the side that was touched.
Moro Reflex automatic arching of back and throwing arms forward when startled
Grasping Reflex infant’s hands close around anything that touches the palms
Gross Motor Skills involve large-muscle activities
Fine Motor Skills involve finely tuned movements
Palmer grasp grasping with the whole hand
Pincer grip grasping with the thumb and forefinger
Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors (eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin)
Perception interpretation of what is sensed
Ecological View we directly perceive information that exists in the world around us
Vision sense least developed at birth; 20/20 reached by about 8 months Binocular vision (depth) develops around 4.5 months
Visual Preference Method They look at preferred (new) objects longer
Habituation they look away
Dishabituation They’re looking at it to figure it out.
1st sense to develop Touch; pain
Created by: MarieG