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Psy exam Part 2

developmental psychology examines how people continually develop physicaly, cognitivley, and socially from infancy to old age
nature vs nurture question how do our genetic inheriteance and our experience influence our development
continuity/stages question is development a gradual, continous process or does it proceed in stages
stability/change question do our early personality traits persists through life, or do we becom edifferent people as we age
F.A.S. fetal alcohol syndrome- small disproportioned head and life long brain abnormalities
behavior genetisists the study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
temperament a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
interaction the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor(environment) depends on anpother (heredity)
molecular genetics sub field of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
evolutionary psychology study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natrual selection
norms and ubderstood rule or accepted and expcted behavior. "proper behavior"
collectivism giving priority to the goals of ones group and identifying ones identity accordingly
individualism giving proirit to ones own goals over group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications independent life task - discover and express ones uniqueness what matters-me coping method-changerealit
role set of expectations about social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role a set of expected behaviors for males and females
gender typing the aquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
attachment the bond between a caregiver and child that is physiological as well as psychological after 6-8 months kids will have seperation anxiety(if kids dont regonize a face the get scared coincids with crawling)
oxytocin hormone chemical release during labor andbreast feeding that develops a maternal bond and behavior, it can be smelles and is linked to social acceptance feelings, sexual satisfaction, and monogamy
john bowlby said attachment exsists for survival we have innate behaviors for attachment as kids such as reflexes and crying
conrad lorenz imprinting had an expiriment where ducklings imprinted on him aslo had other expiriments where the imprinted on inanimante objects determenined there was a critical period where imprinting could happen and earl expirences can affect life
Jean Piaget father of development- did his work before people cared about kids did away with the idea that kids had had limited adult brains and just hadnt learned enough. changed to children develop over time so they dont think like adults they think like their age
stage theory piaget children learn as they can at 3 months old i month of retencion 1.5 years they have 3 months of retencion brain dentsity increases so does memory after time through teen years unused areas are limited such as language
scheme leran a basic idea of something like dogs have four legs
assimilation a schema is adapted or expanded to incorporate a new experience
assimilation a new experience is placed into an existing schema
stages of development sensorimotor( birth- 2 years)Preoperational stage(2-7 years) concrete operations (7-12 yrs) formal operations (begin at 11-15)
Harlow asked is attachment just about survival did the wire monkey experiments
wire monkey experiment reeses monkeys were found to bond to something in their cage the investigation made two wire monkeys one of just wire with a place to hold a bottle the other with terry cloth and no bottle the monkeys clung to the clot monkey not wire survivalnot most imp
failure to thrive seen in romanian orphanages children with little meaniingful human contact did not have attachment did not grow correctly and do not phycologicaly develop either
ainsworth strange situation paragidm expirment looking at children attachment
strange situation experiment how does the child react when mom returned 1. secrue "(cried became distracted had big reunion) avoidnat attachment(kid didnt cry when mom left and snubbed her when she came back) anxious " almost inconsolable mad and happy at return
attachment style how a child is attahced to his or her mother is predictive of behavioral problems sucess in adult relationships parenting
cross sectional studies study many things at the same place in time like all babies in a certain way
longitudinal study same individual over a period of time
prenatal development weeek4- lower brain week 7-cortex week 10- hypothalymus and thalamus week 12 basal ganglia and hemishperes 7 monthes comlete CNS
teratogens toxins such as alcholol or cocaine taken in by the mother
prenatal environmental influences mothers diet, ingestion of toxic substances, viruses, stress and hormones
auditory baby study premes used to study early development. babys sucking controlled whether they heard their mothers voice or a strangers long pause for mother short for stranger
cat in the hat when do babies hear 22 weeks, babies were read books during a certain part of the pregnancy and then hooked back up to the pacifire when the got up to either cat in the hat of dog in a fog
baby reflexes most drop off after 4-6 monthes if not something is probably wrong breathing hand hold suckling swallowing
object permanace before 6 moths babys dont know that things exsist when not in view peekaboo means the persons face disapears and they can understand numbers and physics babys stare longer and unexplainable physics or changes in things
egocentism cannot precieve things from anothers point of view
theory of mind when kids understand other kids have minds too
emotions a response involving a physiological arousal,expressive behavior, and consious experience immidiate responces to environmental events
primary emotions evolutionary adaptive, cross cultural, assositated with biological stateex fear anger happiness
secondary emotions blends of primary remorse guilt submission
circumplex model emotions vary on two axis made of the x (pleasent-unpleasent) and the y (activated to deactivated)
james lange emotions result from physical changes- sad because of crying problem- the body is slower to respond than the mind
cannon bard theory mind and body operate independetly and dont interact two emotional pathways 1. quick and dirty thalamus to amygdala (flinches from fear before you know whats going on) 2. slow and deliberate thalamus to the cortex
schachter and singer two factor theory- a situation invokes a physiological response and a cognitive interpretation to form a consious experience
schachter and singer experiment ppl injected with epinephrine and then interact with a confederate the people who were told what to they took reacted less than people who werent told
love arousal bridge expiriment explain
why have emotions key us in and strengthen relationships, help us make dessisions, aids in memory, interpersonal relationships, captures attencion
auditroy study babies either heard momthers voice or stargers voice and sucking pattern determined what they herad showed that hearing develops in the womb at 22 weeks same was done with reading
sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years builds schemas
preoperational 2-7 years child begins to think sumbolicaly but lacks reason thinking based on immediate apperence dont understand the liquid conservation idea
concrete operational child begins to reason through physical experinces and the beging of logig
formal operations beging at 11-15 congnitive structers like that of an adult
Created by: czalesky66