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CP Phys Chap 7

CO2 Transport & Acid-Base Balance Pt 1

At rest, the metabolizing tissue cells consume and produce what? Consume 250mL of O2 & produce 200mL of CO2.
How many ways does Plasma transport CO2? 1. Carbamino compound bound to Protein, 2. Bicarbonate, 3. Dissolved CO2.
Carbamino compound bound to protein in Plasma 1% of CO2 transport
Bicarbonate in Plasma 5% of CO2 transport
Process of bicarbonate in plasma (very slow process) CO2 + H2O (Hydrolysis) -> H2CO3 (carbonic acid) -> HCO3- + H+ (ionized ions)
Dissolved in Plasma 5% of CO2 transport
Dissolved CO2 in plasma is used to determine what? Pts. Pco2 (in venous blood) Pco2 x .03 = Pco2 mEq/L
How many ways does RBC transport CO2? 1. Dissolved CO2, 2. Carbamino-Hb, 3. Bicarbonate.
Dissolved in RBC 5% of CO2 transport
Carbamino-Hb in RBC 21% of CO2 transport
O2 that is released from the carbamino-Hb reaction is available for what? Tissue metabolism
Bicarbonate in RBC 63% of CO2 transport
Process of bicarbonate in RBC (very fast process) CO2 + H2O (Hydrolysis) ->(*see Carbonic Anhydrase) H2CO3 (carbonic acid) -> H+ + HCO3- (ionized ions, H+ are buffered by Hb)
Carbonic Anhydrase = CA An enzyme (or catalyst) that greatly enhances the bicarbonate reaction in the RBC causing the RBC to saturate with HCO3- & the excess to diffuse into the plasma.
The HCO3- overflow into the plasma does what? Combines with Na+ to form NaHCO3 and transports HCO3- to the lungs via venous blood.
What happens to the Cl from the NaCl in the plasma that the Na left for the HCO3-? The Cl- movies into the RBC to maintain electric neutrality. Known as the Chloride Shift, or the Hamburger Phenomenon, or as an Anionic Shift to Equilibrium.
What happens secondary to the chloride shift? Some H2O moves into the RBC to preserve osmotic equilibrium causing the RBC to slightly swell in the venous blood.
Homeostasis balance ratio in the plasma 20:1 or HCO3- (20): HcCO3 (1) or Base (20): Acid (1)
pH & the plasma ratio 20:1 keeps pH level w/in normal 7.35 - 7.45 range. Ratio increase = >pH & blood is more alkaline. Ratio decrease =
What helps maintain the pH balance and the H+ and HCO3- ion concentrations in blood regulated? 1. Chemical buffer systems (the 1st line of defense), 2. respiratory system (lungs - regulates CO2), & 3. renal system (kidneys - regulates HCO3- or H+).
pH > 7.45 alkaline, alkalosis, or alkalemia
pH < 7.35 acid, acidosis, or acidemia
Buffer is what? A substance that will neutralize the acids and bases w/out changing the pH.
Strong acid does what? Dissociates completely and irreversibly in water, i.e. HCL -> H+ + Cl-.
Weak acid does what? Does NOT dissociate completely, i.e. H2CO3 -> H+ + HCO3.
Strong bases do what? Dissociates easily and quickly ties up H+, i.e. NaOH -> Na + OH.
Weak bases do what? Dissociate incompletely and reversibly and are slower to accept protons, i.e. NaHCO3- -> Na+ + HCO3-.
pH means what? The negative logarithm, to the base of 10, of the hydrogen ion concentration (H+) in moles per liter, or -log H+.
Electrolytes are what? Compounds, mainly sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonate, that dissociates in fluid into ions capable of conducting electrical currents and is a major force in controlling fluid balance w/ the body.
Chemical buffer system Responds w/in a fraction of a second to resist pH change. It is composed of 1. the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system, 2. the phosphate buffer system, and 3. the protein buffer system.
How does the chemical buffer system work? It inactivates the H+ ions and frees HCO3- ions in response to acidosis. In response to alkalosis it generates more H+ ions and decreases the concentration of HCO3- ions.
Respiratory System It acts w/in 1 to 3 minutes.
How does the respiratory system work? By increasing or decreasing the breathing depth and rate to offset acidosis or alkalosis, i.e. acidosis = inc in depth and rate = body COC2 dec and pH inc, or, alkalosis = dec in depth and rate = body CO2 inc and pH dec.
Renal System Requires a day or more to correct abnormal pH concentrations. It is the body's MOST effective acid-base balance monitor and regulator.
How does the renal system work? When extracellular fluids become acidic it retains HCO3- and excretes H+ ions into the urine causing blood pH to inc. When the fluids become alkaline the system retains H+ and excretes primarily HCO3- into the urine causing blood pH to dec.
Henderson-Hasselbalch (H-H)equation pH = pK + log[HCO3-]/[H2CO3] (base/acid)
H-H equation shows what? How the pH of a solution is influenced by the HCO3- TO H2CO3 ratio. Decrease in ratio (12:1) is a dec in pH. Increase in ration (33:1) is an inc in pH. They are directly related.
Values in H-H equation pH (norm is 7.4) = pK (6.1 is constant) + log[HCO3-] (norm is 24mEq/L)/[H2CO3] (norm is Pco2 x .03 = 40 x .03 = 1.2mEq/L)
Created by: mfredenburg