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Pharmaceutics II:EII

Hussains section

QuestionAnswer
What are powders? Homogeneoues mixtures of dry, finely ground drugs that are intended for both external or internal application.
Define Granules. Aggomerates of powered material, which are used in the preparation of tablets.
Describe the general usage of powders in various dosage forms. Raw materials for several dosage forms Tablets and Capsules=Ingredient with diluents and other ingredients Solution and Suspensions= Dissolved or suspended Ointments and Creams=Incorporated into semisolid bases
List the two methods of preparing powders (and define them) and industerial equipment that accomplish this. Comminution-Particle size reduction (or grinding and pulverization) -Mill Blending- The mixing of more than one solid (usually active drug and diluant). -V-blender -Small scale: Morter and Pestle (trituration) and Spatula and glass slab spatulation
Define Capsules A solid dosage form in which drug substances are enclosed in a small gelatinous or cellulose shell.
What are the two types of gelatin and their similarities and differences? Type A and B Type A= Hydrolysis of collagenous material, acid processing Type B= Hydrolysis of collagenous material, base processing.
What are the two types of capsules? Hard and soft
List the size ranges and corresponding estimations of amounts of capsule sizes. 5 (smallest and 30mg)- 000 (largest and 600mg) **Weights depend on powder density**
List the four Compendial Requirements for Capsules. Container Weight variation Content uniformity Labeling
List important information for Container and Weight Variation requirments for capsules. Container- USP lists container specifics, which can include well-closed, light resistant, etc. Weight Variation- HGCs and SGCs similar. Ten capsules picked Calc:Ind. capsules wt full-Ind. cap wt empty. Should be within monograph limits.
List important information for Content Uniformity and Labeling requirments for capsules. Content Uniformity- 10 units measured and amount of active ingredient should be within 85-115%. Labeling- Labeled to reflect the quantity of each dosage unit.
Important points for HGCs. -Rigid and firm (made of gelatin, sugar, water) -Shouldn't be stored in high humidity (become lose rigidity) or very low humidity (become brittle and crumble) -May be filled with powder, granulates, small tablets or capsules.
Important points for SGCs. -Soft, pilable capsule shell (thicker than HCG) -Oblong, oval, or round in shape. -Holds liquids, suspensions, pastes, powders, and tablets. -Plasticized by + of glycerin, sorbitol, or polyol. - Contain more moisture so add preservative.
List the three main types of suppositories Rectal Vaginal (and Vaginal inserts) Urethral
List the shape and weight of rectal suppositories. 1.5 inches long, weigh 2g, cylindrical, and have a tapered end. (Infants are 1/2 the weight.)
List three examples of rectal suppositories. 1. Dulcolax (Bisacodyl) 2. Thorazine (Chlorpromazine) 3. Anusol-HC (Hydrocortisone)
Another name for vaginal suppositories. pessaries
Configuration of vaginal suppositories. Globular or oviform and weigh about 5g.
True or Flase: Vaginal suppositories require an applicator. True
List three common vaginal pathogens 1. Trichomonas vaginalis 2. Candida albicans 3. Haemonphilus vaginalis
List four examples of commercially available pessaries. 1. Cleocin (Clindamycin phosphate) 2. Monistat (Miconazole nitrate) 3. Semicid (Nonoxynol-9) 4. Estrogenic substances like dienestrol
True or false: Vaginal inserts are easier to manufacter and more stable than vaginal suppositories True
List three examples of vaginal inserts. 1. Vagifem (Estradiol) 2. Mycostatin (Nystatin) 3. Canesten tablets (Clotrimazole)
Another name for Urethral Suppositories. Bougies
Configuration of urethral suppositories Cylindrical in shape and slendar (5mm in diameter)
Use of urethral suppositories. 1. Local infections 2. erectile dysfunction
What are the 3 types of suppository bases 1. Cocoa butter-fatty bases 2. Water-soluble - water-dispersible 3. Hydrogels
List the different crystal forms of theobroma oil and the heating parameters. alpha, gamma, beta', beta; Keep heat below 45C, but above 60C then the metastable alpha form is crystallized.
True or False Cocoa butter offers the decreased potential for rancidity and phase transitions compared to hard fats and saturated vegetable oils. False.
PEG bases are used frequently in which suppository? Vaginal
What are the advantages to water-soluble bases? 1. Used for prolonged action compounds. 2. Less messy than cocoa butter 3. Don't melt at body temperature but dissolve in the body's fluid. 4. No refrigeration.
How to hydrogels release active compounds? They absorb water and their macromolecular networks swell releasing active drug.
What are the three methods of suppository preparation? 1. Rolling (Hand-shaping) 2. Compression 3. Molding (Fusion)
Define Semisolid Dosage forms pertaining to the use of ointments, creams, lotions, and gels as drug delivery systems.
Semisolid dosage forms are also know as topical dosage forms, true or false? True
What are the four main ointment bases? 1. Oleaginous base (aka. Hydrocarbon base) 2. Absorption base 3. Water-removable base (aka Water-Washable base) 4. Water-soluble base (aka Greaseless base)
Important points about the Oleaginous Base. -Immiscible with water -Cannot be removed easily from the skin -Can only incorporate small amounts of aqueous drug -Keeps skin hydrated by dehydration prevention -Ex. Petrolatum, white petrolatum, white and yellow ointment.
Important points about Absorption bases. -Result in W/O emulsions -Emollient effects (less than oleaginous base) -Hard to wash off -Ex. Hydrophilic Petrolatum and lanolin
Important Points about Waster-removable bases. -O/W emulsions -Easily removed from skin -Water dilution can be accomplished -Ex. Hydrophilic ointment
Important points about Water-soluble bases. -No oleaginous components -Mostly for solids -Ex. PEG
Two methods for ointment preparation. 1. Incorporation 2. Fusion
List the general compemdial Ointment requirements. Meet tests for: 1.Microbial content 2. minimum fill 3.packaging 4. storage 5. labeling If opthalmic: Additional tests for microbial growth and metal particles.
Important points about creams -Usually o/w, rarely w/o -reflect light creamy -Easy to remove and dry out skin
Define specifics about gels -Thixotrope -dispersions of molecules in an aqueous vehicle with a jelling agent. -Ex. Hydro.-methylcellulose (or CMC), natural gums (tragacanth), and carbomer 934.
Name four other semisolids and a common example. -Pastes (zinc oxide paste) -lotions (antimicrobial) -plasters (salicylic acid for corns) -glycerogelatins (zinc gelatin for ulcers)
List the routes of administration which require ointment applicators. ophthalmic, nasal, aural, rectal, or vaginal
What are the three dispensing containers? Jars, tubes, and syringes
What are the three main ingredients to make effervescent dosage forms Sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, and tartaric acid (makes CO2 bubbles).
What is the dosage form that is the most widely used, has the best ease of administration, and is very stable? Tablets
In a multi-layer tablet what is the core inner and outer portion called? core and shell (respectively)
What are the nine forms of tablets? Compressed, multiple compressed, sugar coated, Film coated, Gelatin coated, Enteric coated, Buccal and sublingual, chewable, and effervescent.
What are diluents and what are examples? Compounds used to increase bulk to make tableting possible. Ex. dicalcium phosphate, lactose, cellulose, kaolin, mannitol, dry starch, and powdered sugar. In chewables, sugar alcohols-mannitol, soritol, and inositol.
What are binders and what are examples? They bind all tablet ingredients together and prevent breakage after compression. Ex. starch, gelatin, sugars- sucrose, latose, and dextrose, molasses, gums such as acacia and veegum.
What are lubricants and what are examples? They prevent adhesion and facilitate ejection from dies and punches; and reduce interparticle friction. Ex. talc, magnesium stearate, calcium stearate, vegetable oil, and PEGs.
What are glidants and what are examples? They improve flow properties of powders. ex. Cab-o-sil and talc
What are disintegrants and what are examples? They help break-up or disintegrate tablet after adm. Ex. Starch, clay, cellulose, and gums are examples of this class
What are colorants and what are examples? They help identify tablets. EX. D and C (Drug and cosmetic) Red 40 or F,D,& C (Food, drug, cosmetic) Red 40
What are flavorants and what are examples? They flavor usually chewable or subling/buccal tabs. Lactose, mannitol, and aspartame.
What are the three types of tab preparation? 1. Direct compression 2. Wet granulation 3. Dry granulation
What are the five processing problems? Capping- loss of top or bottom Lamination- separation of two or more pieces Picking- Punch removes part of tab Sticking- tab sticks to die Mottling- color uneven.
Can enteric coated or controlled release products be split? No
What are the components of a sugar coated tab? Shellac, zein, or cellulose acetate phthalate is used for waterproofing; syrup for subcoats;Gelatin, acacia or PVP is included in the coating mixture.
What are the components of a film coated tab? Cellulose polymers and acrylic copolymers.
What are the components of a enteric coated tab? pharmaceutical shellac, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate, poly vinyl acetate phthalate, and cellulose acetate phthalate--resist harsh stomach environment and degrade at higher pH.
What are the compendial requirements for tabs.? -Weight variation (20 tabs used see notes for scale) -content uniformity (85-115% of label for 10 tabs.) -Hardness (doesn't break up to 4kg) -Friability (wt. loss less than 1% in friabilator) -Disintegration(30 min but can be 2mins (NTG)-4hours buccal
What are the other tab dosage form and examples? -Lozenges (benzocaine, dextromethorphan, phenyl propanolamine) -Lollipops (fentanyl actiq-Cephalon) -Pills (sames as tabs. and caps)
Created by: pack0673
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