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2000 Test 3 Psych

Psychology 2000 Study Stack

QuestionAnswer
memory the persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
encoding the processing of information into the memory system -- for example by extracting meaning
storage the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short term memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly
long term memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills and experiences
working memory a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long term memory.
automatic processing unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency and of well-learned information suck as word meanings
effortful processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
rehearsal the conscious repetition of information, the to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
spacing effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
visual encoding the encoding of a picture image
acoustic encoding the encoding of sounds, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding the encoding of meaning, including meaning of words
imagery mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
chunking organizing items into familiar manageable units; often occurs automatically
iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP) an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for leaning and memory
flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment
amnesia the loss of memory
implicit memory retention independent of conscious recollection
explicit memory memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
hippocampus a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
recall a measure of memory in which the person much retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in the blank test
recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
relearning a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when leaning material for a second time
priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular association in memory
deja vu that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
mood-congruent memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consisten with one's current good or bad mood
proactive interference the disruptive effect of prior leaning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference the disruptive effect of new leaning on the recall of old information
misinformation effect incorporating misleading information into one's memory of events
source amnesia attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
cognition the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events ideas or people
prototype a mental image or best example of a category.
algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier, but also more error prone use of heuristics
heuristics a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms
insight a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
mental set a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; as impediment to problem solving
representative heuristics judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
availability heuristics estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, if instances come readily to mind
overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct; to over estimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
belief perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
intuition an effortless, immediate automatic feeling or though, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
phoneme in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
language our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicated meaning
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or part of a word
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words and sentence in a given language; also the study of meaning
syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
two-word stage beginning about age two, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from age one to two during which a child speaks mostly in single words
telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs
aphasia impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area
Broca's Area controls language expression-an area, usually in the left frontal love, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's Area controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
linguistic determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
intelligence test a method for assessing an individuals mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores
intelligence mental quality consisting of the ability to lean from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
general intelligence a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
factor analysis a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score
savant syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
emotional intelligence the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions
mental age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level or performance
Stanford-Binet the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient defined originally as the ration of mental age to chronological age and multiplied by 100
achievement tests a test designed to assess what a person has learned
aptitude tests a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests
standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
normal curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
reliability the extent to which a test yields consisten results as assessed by the consistency of score on two have of the test or on retesting
validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to
content validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
predictive validity the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
intellectual disability a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life
Down syndrome a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders by an extra copy of chromosome 21
heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
stereotype threat a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative sterotype
Created by: 726621891