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RT 140 Ch.4

Radiation Protection

What is most abundant in the body? Water makes up 80 to 85% of the weight of an average active cell
Water is able to do what in the body? A solvent, A transport vehicle, Maintains constant Body core Temp (98.6 F), Provides Cushion for vital organs, Lubricates Digestive system, Lubricates Articulations
Hydrophobic Water repelling
Hydrophilic Water attracting
Protoplasm Chemical building blocks for all living materials
What are the four major elements forming protoplasm? Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Proteins Are 15% of cell content and are the basic building blocks of all cells and tissue
Proteins are essential for? Essential for growth and repair damaged or debilitated tissue
We have how many Amino Acids in Protein Synthesis? 22
Amino Acids are held together by? Peptide bond
Structural Proteins Provide body with shape and form & Source of Heat and Energy
Enzymatic Proteins Function as Organic Catalyst (Enzymes) & Are not altered in chemical reactions & Necessary to initiate many reaction
Ribosome is the site of? Site of Protein Production
Repair Enzymes Repair Damage to cell from Radiation Damage
Proteins Function as Hormones and Antibodies
Hormones Produce by endocrine System, Thyroid Hormones to Control Metabolism, Regulate Growth and Development
Antibodies Produced by B-Lymphocytes found in Bone Marrow
What cells cultivate Antibodies? T-Lymphocytes
T-Lymphocytes detect? Antigen presence-Foreign bodies like Bacteria or viruses
Carbohydrates Are 1% cell content and are referred to as Saccharides (sugars & starches)
Carbohydrates provide what to the body? Energy necessary for all basic cellular functions
Carbohydrates are composed of? Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen
Simple Sugars Glucose and is the primary energy of the cell
Monosaccharide Is a single unit of sugar (like Fructose & Galactose)
Disaccharide Two units of simple sugars linked together (like Sucrose-Cane sugar)
Polysaccharide Several simple sugar units linked together (like Plant starches and Animal glycogen)
What is the function for Carbohydrates? short term energy storage for body, Fuel for Metabolism, Abundant in liver and Muscle
Lipids 2% of cell content Referred to as Fats, Organic Macromolecules Large molecules built from smaller chemical structures (Glycerin + 3 fatty acids)
What is the function of Lipids? 1 Act as Energy reservoirs 2 Insulate and guard body 3 Support and Protect 4Essential for growth and development 5 Lubricate articulations 6 Assist in Digestive process
Nucleic Acids 1% cell component, DNA & RNA - storage, transmission, translation of genetic information
DNA passes genetic information from one generation to the next & directs cellular activity
RNA formation of proteins
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Composition Two Sugar Phosphate Chains, 5 carbon sugar, Phosphoric acid
Nucleic Acids They are complex molecules, larger than most proteins, and contain, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorous
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) occurs in? The chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell and, in much smaller amounts, in the mitochondria
Where is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) present? Is present in the nucleus, especially in the nucleolus, and also in the ribosomes which are in the cytoplasm and on the rough ER
Nucleic acids are composed of units called? Nucleotides, each of which contains a nitrogenous base, a five carbon sugar and phosphoric acid
What are the two types of nitrogenous bases? Purines and Pyrimidines
What are the purines and pyrimidines of DNA? Purines *adenine *guanine Pyrimidines *thymine *cytosine
What are the purines and pyrimidines of RNA? Purines *adenine *guanine Pyrimidines *uracil *cytosine
Protein Synthesis Transcription generates not only the mRNA that carry's the information for protein synthesis but transfer, ribosomal and other RNA molecules that have structural and catalytic functions.
Created by: kayg