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Special Tests

Knee Special Tests

Special TestMethod of Test & Indications
Valgus Stress MCL.Push knee medial while stabilizing ankle. Do in extension & 20° flexion. (+ = tibia moves away from femur; indicative of injury to: extension: MCL, POL, Postmed caps, ACL, PCL, Semimemb. flexion: MCL, POL, PCL, postmed capsule.
Varus Stress LCL.Push knee lateral while stabilizing ankle. Do in extension & 20° flexion. (+ = tibia moves away from femur; indicative of injury to: extension-LCL,postlat. capsule,biceps fem ten,PCL,ACL,IT band. flexion-LCL,postlat capsule,IT band,biceps fem. ten
Lachman Test Put knee between extention & 30° flexion. Stabilize femur w/ outside hand and move tibia forward w/ inside hand. (+ = soft end feel; indicates injury to ACL, POL.
Anterior Drawer Start w/ knee flexed to 90° & hip at 45°. Stabilize foot & place hands around tibia & draw forward on femur. (+ = mvmt > 6mm; indicates injury to ACL, postlat caps, postmed caps, MCL, IT band, POL.
Posterior Drawer Knee flexed 80-90 degrees and hip flexed 45 degrees. Push tibia back on femur. (+ = posterior sag; indicative of injury to PCL, POL, ACL.)
Anteromedial Ant. Drawer w/ ER. (+ = Excessive motion; injury to ACL, Postmedial capsule, MCL)
Anterolateral Ant. Drawer w/ IR.(+ = Excessive motion; indicative of injury to LCL, Posterolateral capsule, & ACL)
Posteromedial Post. Drawer w/ ER. (+ = Excessive motion; indicative of injury to PCL, MCL, Posteromedial capsule)
Posterolateral Post. Drawer w/ IR. (+ = Excessive motion; indicative of injury to PCL, LCL, Posterolateral capsule)
McMurray's Supine w/ knee flexed (foot to butt). Medially rotate tibia & flex knee. Repeat w/ laterally rotating tibia. (+ = Snap or click w/ pain; indicative of loose fragment of meniscus. Lateral rotation: medial mensicus. Med rotation: lateral meniscus.
Apley's Compression/Distraction Prone w/ knee flexed to 90°. Medially & laterally rotate tibia w/ distraction. Note restriction, exces. mvmt, pain. Repeat w/ compression. (Rotation+distraction is worse: ligamentous injury. Rotation+compression is worse: meniscus injury.)
Q-angle Angle between quads and the patellar tendon. Draw a line from ASIS to the midpoint of the patella & then another from tibial tubercle to midpoint of patella. This is Q angle. Incr. Q-angle causes lat. tracking, while decr. Q-angle centralizes tracking
Patellar Mobility Ability to move patella superior-inferior, and medial-lateral.
Hughston Plica Test Lies supine. Flex knee & medially rotate tibia w/ 1 hand & press patella medial (heel) & palpate femoral condyle w/ other hand.Flex & extend knee and feel for "popping." Popping indicates a positive test for a plica.
Sweep Test Tests for edema. Compress above knee and milk downward toward knee. Then compress below knee and milk upward toward knee. Look for a bubble of fluid going from one side to the other.
IT Band Tightness (blank)
Created by: 138 Rechow