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RT 140 Ch.1

Radiation Protection

Excitation Raising an e- in an atom to a higher energy level without ejection of the e-
Ionization Ejection of an orbital e- from an atom *(ionizing radiation) *average energy of 33eV
Radioactivity The spontaneous release of energy from the nucleus of an atom in the form of EM or Particulate radiation
Particulate Radiation Energy propagated in space by traveling corpuscles having a definite rest mass, charge,& position
Electromagnetic Radiation Energy propagated in space as oscillating Electric & Magnetic fields at 90 degree right angles & traveling at the speed of light (3x10^10 cm/sec, 3x10^8 m/sec, 186,000 miles/sec)
X-Rays Are produced extranuclearly * e- are accelerated, hit a target, & as they stop abruptly *part of their kinetic energy is converted into x-rays
ɣ-Rays Are produced intranuclearly *an unstable nucles of a radioactive isotope breaks up & decays toward a more stable form a ɣ-ray is released *Instability of a nucleus increases as Z increases *overcoming of Coulomb forces in the Nucleus of the atom
Directly Ionizing Charged Particles (e-, proton, ⍺-particle, β-particle) *Produce chemical & biological changes themselves
Indirectly Ionizing Have no charge (x-rays,ɣ-rays, & neutrons) *They give up their energy to produce fast-moving charged particles(fast recoil e- or heavy charged ions) that then produce chemical & biological changes.
The Atom Atom meaning "indivisible" in Greek * The smallest possible particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties
Nucleus of the Atom The nucleus of an atom is the very dense region in its center consisting of protons & neutrons * 10^-14 meters(radius of nucleus) * 10^-10 meters(radius of electronic orbits)
Atom is composed of Composed of 3 types of subatomic particles * e-:have a negative charge & are the least massive of the 3 * p:have a positive charge & are about 1836 times more massive than e- * n:have no charge & are about 1839 times more massive than an e-
Rutherford Discovered Discovered that atoms have a small charged nucleus * Pioneered the Rutherford model (or planetary model) * Later evolved into the Bohr model
Isotope When N is different, Z=same
Isotone When z is different, N=same
Isobar When Z is different, A=same
Isomer When A=same, Z=same * Nuclear energy states are different * In a metastable state
Avogadro's Number Every gram atomic weight (AW) of a substance contains the same number of atoms * (Na)= 6.0228 x 10^23
Proton Mass Unit 1.00727
Neutron Mass Unit 1.00866
Electron Mass Unit 0.0005486
Wave Model C = λ x v * c= 3x10^10 cm/s, 3x10^8 m/s * Wavelenght,λ=12.4/E(keV) * v=(1Å=10^-10m)
Electromagnetic Radiation Characteristics * Same Velocity * Different Wavelenght * Different Frequency
Energy of a Photon E=hv *(Planck's Constant H=6.6256 x 10^-34 Js/cycle)
Radiation Protection Effective measures employed by radiation worker's to safeguard patients, personnel, and the general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation
Diagnostic Efficacy Diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence or absences of disease.
Radiation The emission and propagation of energy through space or material medium
Types Of Radiation *Electromagnetic Radiation *Particulate Radiation *Radioactivity
De Broglie Hypothesis *Dual nature of matter *EM appear to behave like particles (exhibit momentum) *Particles such as electrons, proton’s and neutron’s have some type of wave Motion and Refraction (change in direction) of a wave due to a change in its velocity
Equivalent Dose (EqD) A quantity attempting to account for variation in biologic harm produced from different types of radiation Wr
Effective Dose (EfD) Dose taking into account dose for all types of ionizing radiation absorbed by organs or tissues Wt
Background Equivanlent Radiation Time (BERT) The method of comparing the amount of radiation received with natural background radiation.
Enhanced Natural Source If any natural source of radiation Become increased because of accidental or deliberate human actions.
Radionuclide Is an unstable nucleus that emits one or more forms of ionizing radiation to achieve greater stability
Created by: kayg