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Fallacies

Philosophy

QuestionAnswer
Personal Attack arguer attacks the character of another arguer
Ad Hominem arguer irrelevently insults another arguer (literally against the person)
Lack of Experience arguer claims opponent does not have enough (or the right kind) of experience to make an argument
Vested Argument arguer claims opponent has ulterior motives for making the argument
Tu Quoque arguer claims opponent is doing what she/he has been accused of (literally: you also)
Fallacy A misstep in an argument, quite literally a device that causes an argument to be useless. It invalidates arguments.
Mere Assertion Arguer asserts claim without support, treating a single claim as an argument
Non-Sequitur An argument where the conclusion does not follow from the premises
Dubious Authority Arguer appeals to the wrong kind of authority
Unspecified Authority Arguer appeals to vague authorities such as "scientits" or "studies" without providing specifics
Appeals to Tradition Arguer appeals to traditions or length of time something has been in place
Celebrity Arguer appeals to celebrities to make his or her case
Appeal to Novelty Arguer claims that because something is newer, it must be better
Appeal to the Masses Arguer appeals to popularity or "sheer number"
Appeal to the Few (Like the appeal to the masses) but with a small, select population
Appeal to Ignorance Arguer claims that something is true or false simply because no one has proven otherwise
Appeal to Force Arguer threatens a reader or listener
False Dilemma/False Dichotomy Posing a false either/or choice when there are more options than what is presented
Straw Man Arguer misrepresents an opponent's view
Slippery Slope Claiming, without sufficient evidence, that a seemingly harmless action, if taken, will lead to a disasterous outcome
Equivocation Arguer uses a key word in two or more different senses
Circular Reasoning Arguer assumes the conclusion in one or more premises or reiterates one of more premises in his or her conclusion (same thing said over again)
Hasty Generalization Drawing a general conclusion from a sample that is biased or too small
False Cause The claim that because one thing occurred after another thing, it must have resulted because of it
Oversimplified Cause the claim that because one thing appeared to cause another, it is the only factor in that causation, when in actuality, there is more to the story
Emotional Appeals Arguer preys upon the emotions of audience, rather than appealing to reason
Fear Arguer tries to scare audience
Vanity Arguer "butters up" audience by making them feel good with compliments (similar to the appeal to few)
Guilt ARguer attempts to motivate audience by making them feel guilty
Poisoning the Well Arguer undercuts the credibility of an opponent so much that the audience will not believe the opponent ever tells the truth
Red Herring Arguer tries to distract the attention of the audience by raising an irrevelant issue
Created by: jenks14
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