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RT 140 Ch.3

Radiation Protection

QuestionAnswer
Radiodermatitis Reddening of the skin
Aplastic Anemia Bone Marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells
Pancytopenia Depressed WBC, RBC,& platelet count
Leukemia *Hematological malignacies *Types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow, & lymph node
Radiation Protection Effective measures employed by radiation worker's to safeguard patients, personnel, and the general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation
Effective Measures Consist of Both Human and Environmental, Technical and Procedural
Biological Effects Damage to living tissue from ionizing radiation
Tolerance levels Biological effects were believed to be preventable if radiation dose was limited
Short term - Somatic Effects *Acute or Early Effects *Occurred shortly after radiation exposure
Tolerance Dose *Radiation dose to which occupationally exposed individual could be continuously subjected without apparent harmful effects *Erythema
Threshold Dose Dose of radiation below which an individual has negligible chance of sustaining specific biologic damage
Effective Dose (EfD) Dose taking into account dose for all types of ionizing radiation absorbed by organs or tissues Wt
Roentgen *Internationally accepted as unit of Exposure to x and gamma radiations *1R= 2.58 x 10^-4 C/kg in air
Restrictions to Roentgen * Only X-ray & Gamma rays * Energy below 3 MeV * Only in air
Bragg Gray Cavity Theory Relates ionization produced in a gas filled cavity to energy absorbed in surrounding medium
F-factor *Roentgen –to rad conversion factor *Dair= 0.876 rad/R x Exposure in Roentgen
Exposure *Radiation ionization in air. *Amount of ionizing radiation energy transferred to material medium
Absorbed Dose Energy deposited per unit mass by ionizing radiation in biological tissue.
Equivalent Dose *Accounts for variation in biologic harm produced by different types of radiation. *Used for radiation protection purpose
Effective Dose Quantity attempting to summarize the overall potential for biologic damage from ionizing radiation exposure.
Ampere *Is unit of electric current *Traditional unit
Absorbed Dose Defined as the amount of energy absorbed per unit mass of irradiated material or biological medium
Effective Dose The sum of weighted equivalent doses for all tissues and organs irradiated
Collective Effective Dose *Describe Internal and External dose measurements *Describe radiation exposure to population *Low dose of different types of Ionizing Radiation *ColEfD = Effective Dose Avg x No. People Exposed (person-sievert or man-rem)
Linear Energy Transfer (LET) The amount of energy transferred on average by incident radiation to an object & is expressed in units of kev/um
Stochastic effects Nonthreshold Randomly occurring biologic effects of ionizing radiation such as cancer & genetic abnormalities.
Tissue Weighting Factor (Wt) Weighting factor that takes into account the relative detriment to each organ & tissue.
Created by: 739403121