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CNS Terms

TermDefinition
Vestibulo Cerebellum coordination of eye and head movement
Vestibulospinal Tract (spinal cord & inner ear) postural sway; righting reactions
Reticulospinal Tract equilibrium reactions; bigger balance reactions- not sways
Spinocerebellum motor info; control proximal mm; deficits: hypotonia (intention shakes, get worse the closer they get to what they want), decreased rhythmic patterns (ie. gait), decreased movement accuracy
Hypotonicity decreased mm tone
Asthenia generalized weakness
Dysmetria under/overestimation of movement to a target; error in force (crush a Styrofoam cup)
Decomposition of Movement movements become broken into pieces
Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus repetitive alternate eye movement that has a fast and slow alternate patterns
Ocular Dysmetria overshooting with eyes before you find what you are looking for w/no pattern
Dysarthria articulation dysfunction; speech not language
Anarthria inability to produce speech; speech not language
Expressive Aphasia language; Broca’s Area (Front lobe) decreased speech production/ decreased language output. speech that is produced is garbled, inappropriate words (mixed words)
Receptive Aphasia Wernicke’s Area (Temporal Lobe) not sure they understand. decreased language comprehension
Alexia inability to read left Occipital Lobe Corpus Callosum damage
Agraphia inability to write (anywhere in cerebrum due to complex nature of activity = motor skill (coordination, stability, posture)/cognitive skill)
Apraxia Disorder of skilled/purposeful movement
Ideomotor Apraxia ** Huge Problem inability to complete motor activity in response to a verbal command (perform) has no idea what that motor movement is in association with word
Agnosia inability to recognize object (visually) BUT hearing and feeling is still intact
Bell’s Palsy Peripheral, cranial, looks like CVA (face only) sometimes confused w/ a stroke; always send as stroke to be sure that is not what it is if have facial paralysis transient or permanent
Paralysis Sensory is usually 1st affected process Don’t have good sensory then will have motor issues Hemiplegia: loss of voluntary muscular control and sensation on one side of the body only
C3, 4, 5 “keep the diaphragm alive”
C1 through T1 bilateral UE
Thoracic at level of supply the lower in thoracic the more trunk control
Lumbar – L1&2 hips
L2, 3 & 4 Quads
L5 1st toe
Sacral calf, hams, gluts
S2, 3, 4 “keep pee and poo off floor”
Autonomic Dysreflexia sit them up immediately to take blood away from heart binder comes off check catheter for kink
Stroke - CVA hemiplegia (paralysis opposite side of CVA) vascular event that causes destruction of tissue (actual loss of voluntary mm control and sensation) actual damage to the brain w/ visual outcomes
TIA focal neurologic symptoms that completely resolve in 24 hours no tissue damage moment in time
Ischemic Stroke thrombosis or embolic occlusion (bone marrow, fat, etc…) most common heart most common source 2° neuronal damage - when blood decreases, may have collateral supply
Middle Cerebral Artery Syndrome Most Common of *arteries involved* Total blockage = contralateral hemiplegia and hemi-anesthesia Motor & sensory loss (arm opposite side) If dominant hemi affected  global aphasia
Anterior Cerebral Artery Syndrome Uncommon (because of Circle of Willis) Blockage usually LE (leg)
Internal Carotid Artery Syndrome Both arm & leg usually affects areas supplied by MCA symptoms of both anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) with Circle of Willis functioning may be asymptomatic
Posterior Cerebral Artery Syndrome subthalamus, medial thalamus, midbrain abnormal pain sensations, temp, proprioception and touch sensations exaggerated
Vertebral and Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery supply brainstem, medulla, cerebellum collateral supply very effective (may not see symptoms) Wallenberg Syndrome: vertigo, nausea, dysphagia (swallow) Ipsilateral ataxia (same side)
Basilar Artery Syndrome supplies brainstem symptoms bilateral if basilar artery occluded sensory and motor decrease of cranial nerves
Superior Cerebellar Artery Syndrome severe ipsilateral Cerebellar ataxia nausea, vomiting, dysarthria (slurred speech), Dysmetria (overshoot/undershoot)
Anterior-Inferior Cerebellar Artery Syndrome ipsilateral deafness (unique), facial weakness, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus, ataxia
Lacunar Syndrome *moon shaped* small infarcts at the end arteries The more moon shapes the more s/s ischemic necrosis and scarring large majority are asymptomatic s/s based on location
**For any questions regarding motion sickness choose cerebellum**
Bilateral Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage (Stroke Option) Bleeding from an arterial source More damage More involved …not as common Most deadly type of stroke
Created by: srussel