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Ch 19 Film

CH 19 Carlton/Adler Radiographic Film

What are the layers of the diagnostic radiographic film and the sizes? What is the total thickness of radiographic film? The Base 150-250 micrometers, Adhesive 5-10 micrometers, Emulsion 5-10 micrometers & Supercoat 2-5 micrometers. The total thickness is 175-300 micrometers.
What was the original film base? What was the drawback? A glass plate coated with emulsion. The glass plate was very heavy.
What was used as the base after glass plates? What was the drawback? What was then used as the base? What was the drawbacks? Cellulose Nitrate. Cellulose Nitrate was very flammable. The use of Cellulose Triacetate as the base was began in the 1920's. ould Cellulose Triacetate would warp with age and is not as resilient.
What is used today as the base for radiographic film? When was it introduced? What are its strengths? Polyester. In the 1960's. It is flexible, tough, rigid and uniformly lucent.
What is the Halation Effect? The effect of light being reflected from the air interface on the back of the base material. Would get a shadow that comes up.
What are the characteristics needed of film base? Flexible, tough, stable, nad radiolucent.
Whay must film base be uniformly lucent? To permit transmission of light without adding artifacts to the diagnostic image.
Which side must single emulsion film be loaded? Single emulsion film must be loaded with emulsion towards the intensifying screen.
What is the Crossover Effect? What is done to prevent this? Light crossing over from one screen to another. Film base is coated with a substance.
What is the Adhesive layer? What does the adhesive layer allow for? What does it prevent? The layer that binds the emulsion to the base. It allows for proper emulsion distribution over the base. It prevents bubles & other distortion.
What is the Emulsion layer composed of? Gelatin & photosensitive Silver Halide Crystals.
What is the purpose of the gelatin? The gelatin distributes Silver Halide crystals evenly over film surface. The gelatin is a non reactive medium. The processing chemistry is able to penetrate (due to a low Z#) the gelatin to interact with the crystals.
What is double emulsion film? Having emulsion on both sides of the base.
What are the photosensitive agents suspended in the gelatin in the emulsion layer? What are 95-98% composition of the Silver Halide Crystals? The Silver Halide crystals. Silver Bromide with the remainder being Silver Iodide & Silver Chloride.
What is the Supercoat? What is it designed for? What properties does the supercoat have? A protective layer of gelatin. To protect the soft layer of emulsion underneath from abuse. It is hard & strong to prevent scratches, tears & pressure. It is designed to be antistatic as well.
What is direct exposure radiograph film? Why is not used for diagnostic radiography? What does the intensifying screen film do in regards to dose? Direct Exposure film is exposed to x-ray photons only. It's not used because it requires a much greater radiation dose. Screen film reduces the radiation dose.
What are some general guidelines for film handling? Do not store above 68F. Do not store in humidity above 30-60%. Keep undeveloped film free from light & radiation. Film should be stored on end (large to small). Rotate stock with most recent expiration on end.
What is required to be on the film in regards to Film Identification? Date of exposure, full name of patient, name of institution, name of ordering physician, patient identification marker, type of exam.
What is combined to form Silver Bromide Crystal production? What is the gelatin's function in regards to crystal production? Silver Nitrate & & Potassium Bromide. Gelatin limits oxidation and reduces crystal surface energy tension.
What additives are mixed in to the emulsion after crystal ripening? Colored dyes, hardeners, bactericides/fungicides & antofogging agents.
What are the different types of films based on the spectral sensitivity? Panchromatic film is sensitive to all wavelengths. Orthochromatic is not sensitive to red spectrum.
Describe the Silver Halide Crystal structure. The crystal is a cubic lattice. It is composed of Silver (Ag+) in the center & Bromine (Br-) and Iodine (I-) on the surface, resulting in (+) interior & (-) surface. A gold-silver sulfide sensitivity speck must be present.
Describe the latent image formation or the Gurney-Mott theory. Incident photon interacts with the Bromine (-). Bromine ejects an electron (-). The electron (-) is trapped by the sensitivity speck. The sensitivity speck becomes (-). The (-) sensitivity speck attracts (+) Silver. Silver neutralizes sensitivity speck.
What is the coating process? The adhesive layer is pplied to the base. Then the emulsion, Finally the supercoat. Generates 40" wide sheets of film (coated on both sides) which are then cut to size and packaged.
Describe the duplication process. Clean radiograph placed on glass plate with view light off. Duplicating film placed emulsion side down on original radiograph. Notch in the lower left means the emulsion is facing the operator. Lid is attached to acheive good film contact. UV light on.
Created by: jamestkelley