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Stack #58782

Personality All consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from the of others or distinctive, characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that uniquely define an individual
Distinctiveness (in personality) People react differently to the same situation
Consistency (in personality) Stability in a person's behavior over time
State vs. Trait State is temporary while trait is enduring
Nomothetic Approach Seeks general laws about various aspects of personality, everyone has certain traits to some degree but they only differ in amount
Idiographic Approach Concentrates on intensive studies of individuals
Person-Situation Debate Is behavior controlled by personality or the situation? Stability across situations and life span due to something inside the person of similarity in situations?
Barnum Effect Tendency to accept and praise vague statements about our personality
Reliability Repeatability of scores
Validity (in personality assessment) Actually measures personality
Standardization Need distribution of scores to identify whether a score is normal
Self-Report Personality Test Direct measures: answer questions about yourself, people feel the need to tell who they really are so they are accurate
Projective Personality Test Indirect measures, to get at deeper (unconscious) aspects of personality, can be interpreted different ways and could be easier to find the same information different ways (Rorschach/Thematic Apperception)
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) Series of T-F questions intended to measure certain personality traits and clinical conditions, devised empirically, issued for personality assessment and research
Rorschach Inkblot Projective technique based on people's interpretations of 10 ambiguous inkblots, most famous
Thematic Apperception Test Projective technique, person is asked to make up a story for each picture, person probably identifies with the person in the story
Projective Techniques Designed to encourage people to project their personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli
Uses of Personality Assessment Research, clinical psychology, criminal profiling
Assumptions Underlying the Big 5 The 5 traits are cross-cultural
Lexical Approach Factor analysis through English dictionary
Factor Analysis Used to determine which traits correlated with each other
Neuroticism A tendency to experience unpleasant emotions relatively easily, nervous, moody, temperamental vs. relaxed, poised steady
Extraversion A tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people, talkative, assertive, high activity vs. silent, passive, reserved
Agreeableness A tendency to be compassionate toward others, kind, trustworthy, warm vs. hostile, selfish, hard to trust
Conscientiousness A tendency to show self-discipline, to be dutiful, and to strive for achievement and competence, organized, thorough, dependable vs. careless, negligent, unreliable
Openness to new Experience A tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences and new ideas, imaginative, creative, curious vs. unimaginative, not interested in aesthetic matters
Big 5 are Basic... They are real, pervasive (density in language varies), universal, and heritable (22%-46% differences due to unique enviroments)
Psychodynamic Theory Relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces with in the individual, including some that the individual may not consciously recognize
Catharsis Release of pent-up emotional tension
Unconscious (Mind) Repository of memories, emotions, and thoughts--many of them illogical--that affect our behavior even though we cannot talk about them (repressed thoughts)
Conscious (Mind) Acknowledged thoughts, memories, and emotions
Oedipus Complex When a boy develops a sexual interest in his mother and competitive aggression toward his father
Freud's belief on the causes of Psychological Disorders At first he believed it was traumatic childhood sexual experiences, but later he abandoned this theory
id All of our biological drives (sex, hunger) that require immediate gratification
ego Rational, decision-making aspect of the perosnality
superego The memory or rules and prohibitions we learned from our parents and society
Psychosexual Pleasure All strong, pleasant excitement arising from body stimulation
Libido Psychosexual energy
Fixation Preoccupation with pleasure area assocaited with a particular stage
Oral Stage Birth-1/2 years, infant derives pleasure from stimulation of the mouth (sucking, swallowing)
Anal Stage 1-3 years, pleasure from stimluation of the sensation of bowel movements
Phallic Stage 3-5/6 years, play with genitals, Oedipus complex
Latent Period 5/6 years-puberty, suppress psychosexual interest
Genital Stage Puberty onward, strong sexual interest in other people
Defense Mechansim Ego defends itself against conflicts and anxieties by relegating unpleasant thoughts and impulses to the unconscious
Represssion Motivated forgetting, example: someone sees a murder and later cannot remember it
Denial Refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety, example: I'm not an alcoholic!
Rationalization Attempt to prove that their actions are rational and justifiable and thus worthy of approval, example: miss job application deadline--"I didn't want that job"
Displacement Diverting a behavior/thought away from its natural target toward a less threatening one, example: angry at boss and yell at friend
Regression Return to a more immature level of functioning, example: get a divorce and move in with parents
Projection Attribution of one's own undesirable characteristics to other people, example: accusing others of enjoying porm
Reaction Formation Present themselves as the opposite of what they really are to hide unpleasant truth, example: troubled with religion so they try to convert others
Sublimation Transformation of sexual aggressive energies into culturally acceptable behaviors, example: painting--sexual
Freud's Enduring Contributions Much of mental life is unconscious, people have conflicting motives, childhood experiences are important for development, relationships resemble each other, develop through stages of psychosexual interest
Carl Jung's Theory of Personality Emphasized people's search for a spiritual meaning in life and the continuity of human experience
Collective Unconscious Represents the cumulative experiences of preceding generations
Archetypes Vague images that we inherited from the experiences of our ancestors
Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology A psychology of the person as a whole rather than parts
Inferiority Complex An exaggerated feeling of weakness, inadequacy, and helplessness
Learning Approach Learning is specific to a situation
Gender Role (of Learning Approach) The pattern of behavior that each person is expected to follow because of being male or female (the psychological aspect)
Humanistic Psychology Deals with consciousness, values, and abstract beliefs including spiritual experiences and the beliefs that people live by and die for, personality depends on what people believe and how they perceive the world
Self-Concept (Carl Rogers) An image of what they really are
Ideal Self Image of what they would like to be
Q-sort Rogers method of measuring self-concept, uses stack of cards by T/F and ideal T/F
Unconditional Positive Regard The complete unqualified acceptance of another person as he/she is
Self-actualization (Maslow) People's highest need is fulfillment of an individual's potential
People wih self-actualized Personality Accurate perception of reality, independent, creative, spontaneous, accept themselves and others, problem-centered outlook, enjoy life, sense of humor...critics say these are simply characteristics he admired himself
Heritability What percent of differences among people is due to differences in genes
Personality Disorders Longstanding maladaptive (causing distress for others and self) personality, does not feel foreign
Cluster A (Odd/Eccentric) Paranoid (dillusional), schizoid (impaired social relations), Schizotypal (poor relationships, odd thinking)
Cluster B (Disinhibited) Antisocial, borderline (lack of stable self-image), histronic (emotional, need attention), narcissistic (exaggerated opinion of one's importance)
Cluster C (Inhibited) Avoidant (lack of friends), dependent (lack of initiative), OCD (perfectionism)
Created by: hemuller44
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